es 103 final study guide

what is primary succession and how does it differ from secondary succession?
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Terms in this set (28)
succession is a term that means the directional and continuous pattern of colonization and Extinction on a site by species populations.
Primary succession occurs in a new habitat that has not previously been influenced by a community such as sand dunes, lava flows, and soils after a glacier retreat.
Secondary succession is the subsequent sequence of a species influence by previous Community such as spores, seeds in the soils.
The level of biological organization the study of succession often occurs is within a community because what succession shows is community patterns of colonization, replacement, and extinction patterns of the community overtime. within the community for mechanisms of biotic succession or studied which are differential dispersion, differential survival, facilitation, biotic interactions.
the intermediate disturbance hypothesis predicts that with too little disturbance it allows certain highly competitive species to take over the entire system but with too much disturbance this allows only a few specialized disturbance tolerant species to survive, thus diversity is maximized where disturbance is strong enough to create opportunities for successional species, but not too strong as to exclude all late successional species.
the ecological niche of a species describes the effect environmental conditions has on the species in which they respond to the competition for resources in order to survive grow and reproduce.
This differs from a species habitat because habitat just describes the physical, chemical, and structural conditions under which a species can exist
ecosystem stability is the consistency of an ecosystems conditions as influenced by internal conditions; little fluctuation in year-to-year lead to high stability.
meanwhile ecosystem resilience is the ability of an ecosystem to recover and return to similar state in which the more diverse the ecosystem is the more stable most of the time
ecosystem resistance is the ability of an ecosystem to resist change to external forces.
the first mechanism is differential dispersion which describes pioneer species establishing in a certain area in their succession over time.
the second mechanism is a differential survival which describes species in a certain area that once they are established well successfully overtime either reach Extinction or survive.
the third mechanism is facilitation in which the establishment of one species may modify the physical environment which then goes on to favor or disfavor another species.
the fourth mechanism is biotic interactions which describes how interacting establish species either favor or disfavor each other directly.
ecosystem structure is composed of biotic or living things in abiotic or physical chemical components.
and ecosystems function is known as its processes which include cycling of chemical elements or material, flow of energy, and changes over time as affected by biotic succession.
these properties and processes are different from goods and services because ecosystem services are the set of ecosystem functions and structure that are directly linked to benefit human well-being while the basic characteristics of an ecosystem do not have direct links to benefit human well-being.
keystone species is a species that influences the ecological comparison, structure, and function of its Community for more than its abundance would suggest.
Endemic species are native species found only in a particular habitat or location.
exotic species are species introduced by manned beyond the natural range.
What differences is concerning biogeochemical cycles and biomass exist between young and mature ecosystems in ecosystem development as presented by Gene Odum?young ecosystems in development have small plant size, high gross production and biomass, less organic matter in the system, mineral Cycles are open, and roll of detritus for nutrients Supply is less important. mature ecosystems in ecosystem development have large Plant size, low gross production and low the biomass because maintenance continues to increase until no Surplus in production, more nutrients tied up in organic matter, and minerals taken up quicker and stored to a greater degree are closed.list and explain five main characteristics of biota often observed in Island ecosystemsthe first is species diversity is low because the number of species on the island depends on colonization Extinction and speciation rates. the second is there is a high number of endemic species often due to adaptive radiation which is evolutionary diversification of species. the third is absence or poor representation of ecological groups such as large Predators or native terrestrial mammals. the 4th is Island biotas have modified ecology and behavior such as flightless mess of birds, fearlessness to humans, or even plants lacking physical and chemical defenses to grazing. the fifth characteristic is ecological release which is expansion of the niche by use of more habitat and more resources; biotas become does the acronym hippo related to multiple impacts threatening Global diversity? Explain each factor and how it affects biodiversityhippo is an acronym that summarizes threats in order of the descending importance describing the magnitude of impact of 5 main activities that are responsible for biodiversity loss. The first is habitat destruction which results in the unavoidable Decline and Extinction of many species. the second is invasive species which describes how alien species displace the native species. The third is pollution which describes when factors of the environment such as water or soil become contaminated which weakens and earases more species the 4th is population which means that the more people in an area means the more the other hippo effects increases. the last is overharvesting where some species are hunted to Rarity and Extinction. ​indicate and explain three exotic species that are a threat to Native ecosystemsthe first is broom sedge which is exotic grass and its dormant phase groundwater increases in this increases risk of fire that can be a threat to Native ecosystems. the second is mosquitoes and exotic birds which are vectors of disease such as Avian Pox and avian malaria that are a threat to Native species. the last exotic species is banana poka which is Vine covering native up land for us in which pigs disperse seeds and these plants smother the crowns of native trees. ​what would you expect to occur to colonization rights and species diversity when observing an island farther from a Mainland than initially graphed? show the change on your initial graph or draw a new graph and label.1 1show graphically overtime and explain the potential management actions that can be taken to hinder The Establishment and spread of exotic species. How do you available management options change over time?1 1the species area curve for Habitat on islands is often represented as a power function of the form S= aAz. assume researchers have established a relationship 4 plant species in Hawaii with a species- area curve containing constants a= 1 and z = 0.25 with A. how many plant species exist on five hundred thousand square kilometers? Show calculations. How many plant species will be driven to Extinction with a 70% reduction in habitat size? show calculations1 1explain the difference between a oligotrophic lake and a eutrophic lake?Oliotrophic lakes have low nutrient levels, good light penetration, High dissolved oxygen, deep Waters, low algal growth, smallmouth bass, lake trout, Pike, Whitefish. a Eutrophic lake has high nutrient levels, poor light penetration, low dissolved oxygen, shallow Waters, high algal growth, carp, bullhead, catfish.what is a Dobson unit and why is it measured?1 Dobson unit equals one hundredth of a millimeter thickness of ozone layer at standard temperature and pressure. it also is 1 pqrt per billion of 03. A Dobson unit is measured to describe how much ozone there would be in a column if it were all squeezed into a single layer.why is the surface of the Earth warm enough to support Life as We Know It?the Earth's atmosphere keeps much of the sun's energy from escaping into space but the Earth does not continue to get hotter and hotter as it absorbs energy from the sun, because it gives off energy to space as invisible infrared radiation. this process is called the Greenhouse Effect and it keeps the planet warm enough for life to stated in its fourth report what are three major findings concerning global climate change and society as reported by the intergovernmental panel on climate change?first the global ghg emissions from human activities have grown since pre-industrial times with a 70% increase between 1970 and 2004. secondly, carbon dioxide annual admissions grew by nearly 80% between 1970 and 2004. thirdly atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and CH4 in 2005 they needed by far the natural range over the last six hundred and fifty thousand years.what is CITES and how does it relate to endangered species?CITES is a global agreement among governments to regulate or ban international trade in species, especially those with high incentive for harvesting and killing, under threat.what was the Montreal protocol, what natural system did it attempt to restorethe Montreal protocol was an international agreement to abandon CF3 and cut cfcc emissions by 35% between 1989 and 2000 and developing countries phasing out consumption by 2010. this agreement is attempting to restore the ozone layer from the effects of climate change.what is the Kyoto Protocol and what natural system did it attempt to maintainit is an international treaty that commits State parties to reduce Greenhouse emissions in an effort to protect the climate system.what is mitigation Wetland bank and why do they exist explainit is a system of credits and debits device to ensure that The Logical loss is compensated by preservation and restoration of wetlands natural habitats and streams in other areas so there is no net loss to the environment. they exist to be the more cost-effective strategy to protect nature reduce harmful impacts and hold developers accountable then creating separate medications for multiple projects which is not as efficient.what is the entropy law and why is this important considering trophic levels in food chains of ecosystemsentropy is Central to the second law of Thermodynamics which states that the entropy of isolated systems left to spontaneous Evolution cannot decrease with time as they always arrive at a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, where entropy is highest. it is also known that through utilization energy is transformed from a useful state (low entropy) to a less useful state. (high entrophy) In considering trophic levels in food chains of ecosystems entropy is the quality of energy that becomes less useful as it moves through each level of the trophic structure because heat is given off.what is biomagnification of toxinswhen the concentration of the toxin increases as you go up trophic levels because big predators eat a lot of little little Predators who have a smaller concentration and as they consume more of the concentration gets higher and higher as they move up.what is Chaparral known forthey are known as shrublands of vegetation that become extremely dry by late summer and burn becoming necessary for germination of many shrubs seeds and also serve as a way to clear away dense ground cover that's maintaining the Shrubbery growth form of the vegetation by preventing the spread of trees.