Social Psychology Exam 1
Terms in this set (99)
All of the following are limits on observational research except...
The coding of the data by judges is always low in reliability
A researcher wants to see if there is a relationship between a person's birth order and his or her leadership ability. The best method for answering this question would be
Spinoza (1663) proposed the idea that when you love someone whom you used to hate, you
Love him or her more strongly than if hatred had not preceded the love
The word "construal" refers to
The scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people is the definition of
Jane analyzed the results of her study and found that the probability of getting such findings by chance was less than 1 in 100. Jane can say that her results are statistically
Behaviorists believe that all learning is a result of
Reinforcement and punishment
Consider the following research question: "Have no-fault divorce laws increased the rate of divorce in the United States?" This question is most likely to be asked by a
In explaining why so many people watching on the Internet failed to come to the aid of Abraham Biggs, who committed suicide, a behaviorist would most likely address the
Viewers' interpretations of the video
One application of Ross's idea of naïve realism is to assist the negotiations between long-time adversaries: Palestinians and Israelis. How would understanding naïve realism potentially help these parties negotiate more successfully?
Both sides would understand that their perceptions are biased, and try to be more objective
Several presidents have been given conflicting advice during wartime. Some advisers urged the president to pursue a peaceful solution; others urged him to escalate bombing to overcome the enemy. These presidents did not want to go down in history as the first U.S. president to lose a war, so they have chosen to escalate; thereby prolonging the war. According to your text, this decision was most likely a consequence of the motive to
Justify previous actions
Justin isn't sure if he wants to date Mary, with whom he shares many similarities, or Emma, who is very different from him. His friend says, "Opposites attract," and advises him to date Emma. But his brother says, "Birds of a feather flock together," and suggests that he pursue Mary. This best exemplifies that
Common sense is an individual difference
Josh and his friends have just started up a new fraternity on campus, and want to recruit men who will be loyal and love it. Based on the self-esteem approach, which initiation strategy would you recommend to Josh?
Make them suffer a little; ride backwards in elevators all week
In their approach to understanding social behavior, social psychologists are most similar to
Although the fields of sociology and social psychology are related, what distinguishes social psychology from the other?
It examines the individual in the situation, whereas the other examines broader societal issues
Which of the following is the best illustration of a self-fulfilling prophecy?
Ryan heard that Grace is opinionated; upon meeting her, he strikes up a conversation about politics and finds that she is willing to express her opinion.
Keeping in mind the authors' discussion of the misplaced approach to AIDS prevention, which of the ad campaigns below is least likely to work?
Ads that show a fried egg and say, "This is your brain on drugs"
Professor Takahami is a personality psychologist interested in divorce. Which question is she most likely to investigate?
Are some types of people more likely to divorce than others?
Research by Lee Ross suggests that even when people recognize that others perceive information differently, they persist in thinking that others are biased, while they themselves are objective. This illustrates the idea of
Julia eats granola bars and avoids chocolate bars, even though the granola bars contain 50 percent more fat and 15 percent more sodium than the chocolate bars. According to a social cognition approach, why might that be? Julia
Failed to seek out all the relevant facts about the nutritional value of those snacks
A ________ enables researchers to decide whether the effects of an independent variable are reliable across studies.
Social psychologists have identified two motives that are of primary importance in explaining our thoughts and behaviors. According to your textbook authors, these are the need to ________ and the need to ________.
Be as accurate as possible; feel good about ourselves
After the mass suicides related to the cults at Jonestown, people tended to blame the victims and accuse them of being psychologically unstable or deranged. Social psychologists are more likely to explain these mass suicides as being due to
The social influence of cult leaders
The tendency most people have to discount situational explanations of behavior in favor of personality characteristics or traits is called the
Fundamental attribution error
It is important to know the probability level for a given set of experimental findings because p-values
Inform experimenters whether their results might have happened by chance
After reading Chapter 1, if you were to advise producers of a safe-sex television campaign, what would you tell them?
Remember that sometimes people would rather feel good than be accurate
By degree of their level of analysis, which of the following reflects the narrowest to broadest focus?
Personality psychology, social psychology, sociology
At a dinner party, Marcia spilled wine on her boss's Persian rug. If Marcia is like most social psychologists who study construals, what will she ask herself in predicting how her boss will respond?
Will my boss think I'm drunk?
Professor Rothman is interested in tracking changes in racial stereotypes in the U.S. If he decides to conduct an archival analysis, he should
Record how minorities are portrayed in cartoons in the New Yorker magazine from 1940-2010.
Before Jonas Salk discovered a vaccine to prevent polio, people noticed a correlation between outside temperature and the incidence of polio: The warmer the temperature over the course of the year, the more outbreaks of polio. This relationship is an example of a(n) ________ correlation.
What is the role of folk wisdom in social psychology?
It provides many ideas or hypotheses for scientific investigation
The behaviorist approach...
Claims that all learning occurs through reinforcement and punishment
In trying to make sense of the mass suicide in Jonestown, a behaviorist would probably examine the...
Rewards and punishments that Jim Jones used to influence his followers
When Monique plays checkers with her younger sister, she lets her sister win. When she plays with her older brother, she does everything she can to beat him. A social psychologist would suggest that
Monique is responding to different social situations
One potential problem of justifying past behavior in order to protect our self-esteem is that
It hinders people from learning from their past mistakes
Complete the analogy about correlation coefficients: positive correlation: same direction:: negative correlation:_________.
Which of the following is a serious shortcoming of the correlational approach?
Causal inferences based on correlational data are often faulty
When social psychologists do research, they seek to answer questions with experimentation and measurement. By doing so, they are asking _______ questions.
When you conduct your own research, what size p-value indicates that your research has been successful?
Small, such as less than 5%
Lisa and Melissa were comparing grades on their chemistry exam. Lisa was disappointed when she first saw that she had received a grade of 76 percent, but when she saw that Melissa (the class valedictorian in high school) had earned a grade of 78 percent, she felt much better about her grade. What is most likely to be a reason that Lisa changed her perspective?
She had a different construal of her grade
Tom saw a weight-loss program advertised on late-night television. The ad claimed that deep breathing exercises would speed up metabolism, causing people to lose weight. He mailed a check for $99.95. When the plan arrived, Tom rearranged his day so that he could complete the breathing exercises as scheduled. They made him nauseated and dizzy, and before long, Tom's friends began to think that he was going overboard with the program, and they began to avoid him. After the end of the ten-week program, Tom got on the scale and saw that he hadn't lost an ounce! Still, he remained enthusiastic and thought, "I may not have lost any weight, but I feel so much healthier!" This situation is best explained by
The justification of suffering
The "father" of modern experimental social psychology, Kurt Lewin, pointed out the importance of understanding how people ________ their social environments.
Linda tells her professor that her dog is very smart. Every time he hears the word "walkies," he runs to get his leash and stands in front of the door. Linda's professor tells her that her dog has learned to do this because in the past, pleasant walks always followed the word "walkies." Linda's professor is most likely endorsing a ________ explanation.
Complete the following analogy about research methods in social psychology: observational: _________:: _________: causality.
Social and personality psychologists share which common goal?
Understanding causes of human behavior
Why is random assignment important in an experiment?
It allows researchers to rule out individual differences as an alternative explanation
Most of the early psychologists arrived in the US from...
One strength of observational research methods is that they can be useful for describing behavior. However, these methods do not allow researchers to ________ human behavior.
Predict and Explain
________ and ________ are the hallmarks of the experimental method which set it apart from the observational and correlational methods.
Control over extraneous variables; random assignment
Whereas observational research is designed to ________ behavior, correlational research is designed to ________.
Systematically describe; assess relations between variables
How would a social psychologist explain the results of Rosenthal and Jacobson's (1968) study, in which erroneous teacher expectations changed the behaviors of their students?
Our social expectations influence our own and other's behaviors
Assil has an educated guess about the social behavior of teenagers when their high school team wins the football game. That means that she has a(n) ______ about how the teens behave.
According to social cognition researchers, we sometimes have difficulty making sense of the social world because we
Lack the stamina to seek out all the relevant facts
Rahid's server in the restaurant just can't seem to get his order right. If Rahid has just read Chapter 1 on social influence and is thinking more like a social psychologist than before, what would he be most likely to think?
"This person must have had a bad morning"
Jordan's lover of four years just left him. He is hurt, angry, and confused, and says to himself, "He never did understand my need for independence." This explanation for the break-up best reflects which human motive?
Protecting one's self-esteem
Imagine that you were a student in one of the classrooms in the self-fulfilling prophecy study by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968). If you're like most students, you would ________ to be labeled a bloomer, because your teacher would ________.
Want; pay more attention to you and encourage you more
A researcher has recorded that on the playground, boys are more likely to use physical aggression to get what they want, but that girls are more likely to use verbal aggression to get what they want. This researcher most likely employed a(n) ________ research method.
According to the authors of your text, why did behaviorists not incorporate cognition, thinking, and feeling into their theory?
They consider the concepts too vague and difficult to observe
Amber and Jules are friends but differ in how neat they keep their rooms. According to personality psychologists, the distinction between the friends can be referred to as a(n)
Researchers Baron and Straus (1984) found a positive correlation between the number of sexually explicit magazines sold in different states and the number of reported rapes in each of those states. They refrained from concluding that exposure to pornography caused men to rape because of the potential influence of a third variable. Which of the following might constitute that third variable?
A hypermasculine culture in those states
A researcher concludes that frustrating people by giving them a task that is impossible to complete causes them to behave more aggressively. Only ________ warrants this type of conclusion.
Garry is a physician and is convinced that his patient, Mr. Mraz, has cancer. However, after several diagnostic tests and a biopsy that came back negative, Garry rethinks his original diagnosis. He admits that he was wrong and does more research to find the correct diagnosis. In this case, which basic motive did Garry give in to?
The need for accuracy
Complete the following analogy, based on information from your text: behaviorism: ________:: Gestalt psychology: ________.
Tony has been doing research on age and aggression. He has discovered that the older a person gets, the less likely he or she is to aggress against another person. What kind of relationship best describes Tony's findings?
Which of the following questions is most likely to be asked by a social psychologist?
What situations cause people to behave rudely?
According to your text, one reason why social psychologists study the causes of social behavior is to
Contribute to the solution of social problems
The social cognition approach compares people to amateur...
Because their intellectual roots lie more in Gestalt psychology than in ________, social psychologists tend to focus less on objective aspects of a social situation, and more on ________.
Behaviorism; people's perceptions
What is the take-home message of the authors' description of the presidents' decisions to continue and even escalate wars?
When we forego accuracy in the interest of feeling good about ourselves, there are sometimes serious consequences.
According to the definition of social psychology presented in your text, social psychology is the study of how ________ affect the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of humans.
The presence of real or imagined others
Social psychological research has convincingly demonstrated that the ________ the initiation to join a group, the ________ the initiates like the group.
More severe; more
Would social psychology have developed in the U.S. without thinkers from Europe, and why or why not?
No; the study of social phenomena, including social influence, would not have been possible by behaviorists.
"Are some people just better leaders than others?" Such a question about human nature is most likely to be asked by a
Marta left a party feeling very upset. Rather than trying to recall each conversation she had during the party, Marta tried to explain her feelings by reflecting on the party as a whole. The process Marta used resembles the approach used by ________ psychologists.
Professor Hume has spent the last ten years studying the effects of people's levels of self-esteem on their tendency to discriminate against others. She is most likely to be a
A hypothesis is most like a...
George just finished a poem, and is very proud of his work. He knows he should ask his instructor for some constructive feedback to improve it, but chooses not to because he is afraid of losing his sense of accomplishment. In this case, which basic motive did George give in to?
The need to feel good about oneself
According to the authors of your text, when Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) conducted their study on the self-fulfilling prophecy in elementary school classrooms, the "bloomers" in their experiment were actually
Chosen at random
How do social psychologists differ from those who rely on common sense or folk wisdom in answering questions about human nature? Social psychologists
Use science to test hypotheses about the social world
If a researcher were to observe women exercising and then men exercising and compare these groups, why would this not be considered an experiment?
The experimenter is not manipulating anything
You might have heard the old Groucho Marx quip, "I wouldn't belong to any club that would have me for a member." From a self-esteem perspective in social psychology, what would be a more accurate—if less humorous—statement?
"I wouldn't want to join any club at all"
People often construe the world as they do in order to maintain a favorable image of themselves. This assumption underlies the ________ approach.
Rashim is viewed by most people he knows as rude, brusque, and completely unconcerned with other people's feelings. He, in contrast, describes himself as efficient and task-oriented. Rahim's self-description best reflects the motive to
Justify our past behavior
A researcher investigated the relationship between self-esteem and choice of a partner in a "getting acquainted" situation. To do this, she had students take a personality test and then she gave them feedback (based on random assignment) indicating either that the test found them to be "mature, insightful, and socially skilled" or "immature, inflexible, and overly critical." After receiving this feedback, students chose a partner to interact with by looking at photos of people of the opposite sex who were either high or low in physical attractiveness. The study just described is a(n)
In which of the following examples does the need for accurate information most conflict with the need for self-esteem?
Carla has to decide whether to read the detailed red ink comments on the "D" paper she just spent weeks writing.
What is one likely, undesirable consequence of foregoing accuracy in favor of justifying our past behaviors? Justifying past behavior can
Decrease the probability of learning from past experiences
Wendy wants to study how easily people make friends. She assigns people to talk with a stranger for either five minutes or ten minutes, and assigns people who are more outgoing to the "five-minute" condition, and shy people to the "ten-minute" condition. Which of the following is the threat to the internal validity in this study?
The independent variable isn't held constant for every participant in a condition
According to the authors of your text, when faced with a puzzling social question, it may be tempting to ask people why they behaved as they did. Why is this not always the best way to understand social behavior?
People would not necessarily know why they behaved as they did
Both social psychologists and sociologists are interested in aggression. Compared to sociologists, which of the following questions is a social psychologist most likely to ask?
When does anger lead to aggression?
Why didn't Latané and Darley (1968), in their study of bystander intervention in emergencies, use a manipulation more like events in the Kitty Genovese murder?
It would be unethical to expose unwitting participants to such a distressing manipulation
The government is putting together an ad campaign to encourage citizens to wash their hands more often during flu season. Based on your knowledge about fundamental motives and the use of denial, which slogan would work the best?
"Washing your hands only takes a minute, and can keep you well"
Leslie cannot say "no" to anyone. Consequently she takes on too much, and doesn't fulfill her commitments as promptly as she might. Assume that when asked to explain these behaviors, Leslie is motivated to be accurate in her self-perceptions. What would she be most likely to say?
"I guess I'm a bit of a pushover, and take on more than I can responsibly handle"
Your text discusses the fact that there are three causal interpretations of correlations. If there is a correlation such that the more milk a child drinks the more weight he or she gains, which of the following is not a possible causal interpretation of the finding?
A third variable: onset of a growth spurt makes both more likely
Which of the following questions would be of most interest to a social cognition researcher?
What factors prevent people from reasoning accurately?
Social psychologists tend to be more focused on ________, and personality psychologists tend to focus more on ________.
The influence of the situation; individual differences
According to the authors of your text, in the social cognition approach, a major hallmark of being human is
Thomas is scrupulously honest when it comes to not cheating on his tests and papers, but when a cashier accidentally gives him back too much change, he is likely to keep the extra money. A social psychologist would most likely say that Thomas's behavior
Must be responding to factors in the situation that affect his honesty
Complete the analogy: correlation: __________:: experiment: __________.
Which of the following is not a likely consequence of the human tendency to prefer self-justifying information to accurate information?
People gain feedback that makes for better decisions