NCE Social and Cultural Foundations A
Terms in this set (60)
the largest minority group in the US
Hispanic and Latino Americans
By 2050, all the minority groups combined will become larger than:
the Non-Hispanic White population
Over 19% of the population over 4 years of age:
speaks a language at home other than English
The median age of the US population is over:
36 (the oldest ever; non-Hispanic Whites are the oldest group)
The aging of the baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1964) continues to result in the graying of the US. How much of the population is over 65?
Over 12%. About 10,000 baby boomers reach 65 years of age every day.
The baby busters (born between 1965 and 1976) are sometimes referred to as:
'Generation X.' They are characterized by seeking stimulation, wanting the facts-- the right answers, wanting exciting, non-boring jobs, and keeping options open.
Millennials ( Echo Boomers, Internet Generation, Nexters, Generation Y) follow:
Gen X individuals. They were raised to be self-confident, tech aware, goal oriented, civic minded, a multi-culturally inclusive.
Teens are waiting longer to have sex resulting in a decrease in sexual activity among teens. How many 15 to 19-year-olds have had sex (boys slightly more likely than girls)
approximately one half (47%)
How many marriages begin as cohabitations, decreasing the marriage rate, increasing the age of 1st marriage, and increasing the number of children born out of wedlock?
more than 50%
How many women over 16 years of age are in the paid labor market or looking for work?
over 59% of women. By 2016, they will comprise about 47% of the labor force.
How many 1st marriages end in separation or divorce?
Single-parent households with children are increasing:
now about 29%
The majority of divorced people remarry. Remarriage often reconstitutes or blends families. What percent of remarriages end in divorce?
'Sandwich generation' parents are:
those who are caring for their own children as well as their elderly parents.
Females comprise what percent of the population?
Life expectancy is:
over 77 years of age
Biological factors, including hormones, influence development. Many social factors interact with biological and physical characteristics during the individual's development.
major social factors
parents and parenting styles ( authoritarian and permissive); peers and the modeling of peer behaviors including play; television, the most influential mass medium affecting children's behavior.
Most children achieve a sense of being male or female, gender identity, by what age
Each gender has a role, a set of gender expectations prescribing how girls and boys should think, act, and feel. These expectations are promoted by:
family, school, religion, peers, culture, and society in general.
People are products of 5 different cultures:
universal, ecological, national, region, and racio-ethnic
as human beings we are biologically alike; we have the same biological needs
humans are influenced by where they live such as northern versus temperate climates. Language is influenced by the region we live in-- also by what we eat, wear, and live in.
this represents a country often with the same (one) language. A central government establishes laws, policies, and institutions. Each country has a worldview and citizens socialize each other accordingly through education and other means.
this is a culture specific to a region within a nation. In the US, this could be the South, Midwest, etc.
race refers to assumed biological differences including physical features that are used by people to identify majority and minority groups. One may be treated as inferior; race related cultures develop. Ethnic refers to practices, language, and learnings of a group and style of living which are often regionally or culturally based.
Most ethnic group minorities are characterized by large differences between members of the group. These differences are found across a range of variables including:
values, attitudes, behaviors, education, racial identity development, and acculturation. Socioeconomic differences within an ethnic group must also be recognized.
the set of values and behaviors that are learned and passed on within an identifiable community. It includes the symbols and products of that community including such things as language, music, food, and rituals.
relates to differential levels of material possessions or economic advantage including assets and money.
related to social class are:
values, language, interpersonal relationship style, worldview, different levels of opportunity, respect and influence
Counselors and clients are the products of their respective cultures and social class.
In cross-cultural counseling, the behaviors, thoughts, and values of clients must be viewed from that culture's perspective.
refers to the broad categories of individuals who may have special concerns and needs or seek respect, representation, and development in society. These categories include: racial, ethnic and religious classifications, women, elderly, single parent families, divorced, handicapped, gays and lesbians, poor, children, and young adults.
represent a group's basic interpretation of life. They provide the values for living and lifestyle.
a preconceived judgment or opinion without just grounds or sufficient knowledge; may be positive or negative; is often an irrational attitude or behavior directed against an individual or group. A negative or rigid inflexible attitude toward a given group of people. The prejudiced individual often "prejudges" others without substantial evidence and acts on these unfavorable thoughts. Many 'isms' exist such as racism, classism, ageism, sexism, weightism, and handicapism.
the belief that some races are inherently superior to others. It can be expressed on an individual basis; institutional basis; and cultural basis ( all or most members of a society express it).
the belief that one's own group is the center of everything; it sets the standard. This may cause intergenerational conflict when younger members begin to adopt attitudes and behaviors of other cultures around them.
This refers to the subtle advantages and entitlements that European Americans (whites) experience, usually without their awareness. Such individuals have been raised with the perception that their lives are normative, average, and ideal and the lives of other white people are the same. Benefits and entitlements accrue to white men. White women and other white individuals of special groups such as sexual minorities and people with disabilities, would experience the privilege differentially.
the extent to which an individual from a racial or ethnic minority adopts and incorporates the values, beliefs, and customs of the dominant culture.
the extent to which an individual has changed so much that he or she is absorbed into the dominant group losing their own original values and behaviors
Historically, the scientific literature argued for differences between minorities and whites. Pathology and deficiency were more associated with minorities.
Arthur Jensen and others
suggested genetic differences in intelligence
"The Bell Curve"
by Hernstein and Murray, also suggested genetic differences in intelligence.
testing for cultural differences:
predictably found differences between cultural and racial groups, often a function of the assessment instruments. Environment and class factors explain academic achievement differences.
from Gilbert Wrenn, this term refers to: the substitution of model stereotypes for the real world; disregarding cultural variations-- believing in some universal notion of truth; use of a technique-oriented definition of the counseling process (for example, a Gestalt therapist might only use certain Gestalt techniques, no matter who the client or what the problem)
how an individual perceives his or her relationship to the world including its institutions, other peoples, things, and nature; comprised of our attitudes, values, opinions, and concepts and affect how we think, make decisions, behave, and define events.
the belief that you need to understand and help groups from their perspectives-- their culture-- a specific focus
the belief that you have a global view of humanity, that is, we are more similar than different. The focus is on the similarities instead of the differences.
this is counseling which addresses and comprises all components of various cultural environments together with pertinent theories, techniques, and practices of counseling. Cross-cultural counseling takes place within the larger sociocultural political environment which cannot be ignored.
counseling might involve network therapy:
this therapy may include intervention with immediate family members, extended family, and important persons in the client's community including religious/spiritual leaders and other respected individuals
introductions may be important; someone from the culture ( a respected person, perhaps) could introduce the counselee to the counselor
To be effective with many cross-cultural clients, the counselor may need to foster a relationship on a personal level through 'small talk' and more personal sharing that may be true with white clients.
With Hispanics, the counselor must be sensitive to and aware of 'familism:'
the client's strong identification with and attachment to family
Ivey, Simek-Morgan, D'Andrea, and Ivey (2006)
developed a multicultural counseling theory and believe multicultural counseling should make use of indigenous helping roles and strike a balance between individual, family, and cultural issues
suggested that the traditional 'time-bound, space-bound, cathartic psychotherapy' may not be relevant to many cross-cultural clients. The following rules of the counselor may be more relevant: advocate, change agent, consultant, adviser, facilitator of indigenous support systems, and facilitator of indigenous healing methods.
A classic experiment in social psychology was conducted by the social psychologist Muzafer Sherif et al. at the boys' summer camp near Robbers Cave, Oklahoma. The important finding in this study was that:
a cooperative goal can bring two hostile groups together, thus reducing competition and enhancing cooperation. Sometimes loosely called the "Robbers' Cave Experiment," this study set up two distinct groups of 11-year-old boys who were hostile toward each other. The study concluded that the most effective way to reduce hostility between groups was to give them an alternative goal which required a joint effort and could not be accomplished by a single group.
Sex role stereotyping would imply that:
a counselor would only consider traditional feminine careers for his female clients, a male counselor would rate a female client's emotional status differently than he would a male client's, and female clients are treated the same as male clients. According to studies, counselors are prejudiced toward women. In a 1973 study by Schlossberg and Pietrofesa, counselor trainees were instructed to help a female counselee choose between an engineering and a teaching career. All the counselor trainees tried to steer her clear of engineering, typically a masculine career. A 1970 study by Broverman, Broverman, Clarkson, Rosenkrantz, and Vogel found that all the therapists who filled out a questionnaire used a different standard of mental health when rating men from the one they used for women.
having generalized feelings about a given group.
implies that there are fixed layers of superiority and inferiority which you are born into and thus cannot escape. Women and other minorities are sometimes said to be victims of this system.
The statement, "Whites are better than Blacks," illustrates:
racism and is indicative of a caste system mentality. Racism occurs when an assumption is made that some races are better than others. Hence, the race which feels superior can deny the other race rights and respect.
this term grew mainly out of the chemical dependency movement; it mainly refers to an individual who is emotionally involved with a chemically dependent person (perhaps even members of his/her family) and/or is addicted to a relationship with another person or drugs.
one sex assumes that the other is inherently inferior, an analogous term.
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