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HIST 103:BECOMING HUMAN (1)
Terms in this set (66)
When and where did Homo Sapiens originate? When did they migrate out of Africa?
Africa 200,000 years ago. 100 kya
When did significant cultural differences begin to occur?
Cultural differences began with settled agriculture.
How old are the differences in humankind's cultures?
15,ooo to 20,ooo years old
The process by which the different species of the world adapted in response to their often changing environments in ways the enabled them to survive
Refers to members of the Homo sapiens subspecies that evolved about 200,000 ya
The origin of the universe
13.7 billion years
The three distinct group Africa's ape population split into
-Present day gorillas
Who named the Australopithecus africanus
Raymond Dart in 1924
How were australopithecines different from other animals
How many different species did the Australopithecus split into?
A group of animals or plants possessing one or more distinctive characteristics
How are off Australopithecines similar to humans?
They carried the genetic and biological material out of which modern humans would later emerge
What was the significance of Lucy?
Lucy showed us that human precursors were walking around as early as 3 million years ago
With trait gave early hominids an advantage?
What good came out of my bipedalism?
Their arms and hands free for under useful tasks like carrying food over long distances
When did hominids venture into open Savannah?
1.7 million years ago
Increase powers of observation and memory such as problem-solving and language
where is the early hominid social?
They lived in bands of about 25 individuals trying to survive by hunting small game and gathering wild plants
How did early hominids communicate?
Through hand gestures
How did the early hominids differ in appearance after 3 million years?
Over a period of 3 million years their brains more than doubled in size therefore heads became more elongated their jaws became less massive and they took on a much more modern look
What conclusion did the discovery of Orrorin tugenensis bring about?
This discovery indicates that bipedalism must be millions of years older than what we thought.
What does the prefix Homo mean?
Learning and storing lessons so that humans can pass on to offspring
Who discovered the important trait (innovation) amongst homos?
Mary and Louis Leakey, who made astonishing fossil discoveries in Olduvai Gorge.
What is the most significant discovery of early humans in Africa?
The Leakey's intact skull that was about 1.8 million years old.
Name of the Leakey's discovery?
Truly modern humans who lived with the Neanderthals.
How long were modern humans hunters and gatherers?
Until 12000 years ago
We're hg societies egalitarian?
Specialization in hg societies
Women- gathering, child rearing
The ability to draw allowed Homo sapiens to:
-understand their environment
-to bond among their kin groups
-to articulate important mythologies
How old are the oldest wall deco?
Individuals believed to have special powers to understand and control things
When did complex language begin?
Nearest approximation to humanity's earliest language existing today
The !Kung ps Southern Africa and the Hadza of Tanzania.
How many language families are there?
When did domestication begin?
Advantages of domestication:
-Settled down in villages
-Gaining control over nature
Locations scholars acknowledge to be independent centers of agricultural revolution
- New Guinea highlands
-Andean South America
The application of human labor and tools to a fixed plot of land for more than one growing cycle
How did the process of plant domestication probably begin?
When people noticed that certain edible plants retained their nutritious grains longer than others, so they gathered these seeds and spread them across fertile soils
First animals to be domesticated
Dogs (14kya Iraq)
The herding of domesticated animals
When did pastoralist begin?
What did pastoralists produce?
Meat, dairy, wool and exchanged with agriculturalists for grain, pottery, and other staples
How did herders move their livestock seasonally?
Higher lands during summer valleys in winter
Movement across short distances
Where did nomadic pastoralism begin?
The steppe lands north of the agricultural zone of southern Eurasia
Plant domestication in China and Japan was accompanied by what other important innovation?
advancements in p0ttery making
Characteristics of the homo habilis:
-they were the first hominids identified as "homo" or "true humans"
-they were bipedal
-they intentionally fashioned tools for use
-they were first identified by the Leakeys
Characteristics of the Cro-Magnon:
- Cro-Magnon were named after the location in France their first fossils were discovered
- Cro-Magnons were truly modern humans
- Cro-Magnons were highly intelligent
- Cro-Magnons were better equipped than Neanderthals to adapt to change
The cave paintings of early human communities commonly included images of:
Developments in the Sahel region of Africa
-settled farming replaced hunting and gathering
-individuals leaving the Sahel carried knowledge about domestication of plants and animals with them into other parts of Africa
-Villages and towns emerged
In the Americas
most communities adapted to settled agriculture but also continued to practice hunting and gathering
What surprised scientists about early hominids?
They were much more diverse than commonly thought.
Environmental changes led to the developmentof hominids in what ways?
-They spread across the savannas due to a cooling and drying phase caused some apes to come down from trees
-Hominids became social as they searched for safe hiding places
-Adaptation to the environment created the ability to store info and create mental maps
-hominids brains almost doubled in size
The domestication of animals occured
as humans realized that controlling animal reproduction was a more reliable food source than hunting
The last part of Afro-Eurasia to be occupied by Homo erectus was:
The two main features of homo erectus that distinguished them from their competitors were:
bipedalism and control of fire
The trait that gave early hominids a significant advantage for survival was:
Why was SW Asia the center of the agricultural revolution?
-It had fertile soil and abundant rainfall
-Around 9000 BCE, humans began to domesticate barley and wheat
-Planters selected and stored seeds for planting the following year
The revolution in social organization that followed the agricultural revolution included
-the construction of more elaborate buildings
-a concentration of people into larger centers of population
-greater social stratification in communities
encouraging greater gender inequality as men established themselves as leaders of home and community affairs
In China, plant domestication developed around:
rice in the south and millet in the north
The first modern humans were
In Mesoamerica, the major crops differed from Europe. The dominant crops in both regions were:
maize, squash, and beans in Mesoamerica; wheat and barley in Europe
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