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Psych 111 set 4
Terms in this set (60)
Another name for the cell body of a neuron is
An axon is a:
long, tube-like structure extending from a neuron's cell body
Neurons are able to communicate over relatively great distances within the body because they have
Electrical wires are generally protected by a coating of plastic. A similar insulating function is performed in the nervous system by:
Terminal buttons are found at the ends of:
The chemicals that relay signals across the synapses between neurons are called _________.
A synapse is a(n):
An action potential is a sudden ______ change in the electrical charge of a neuron's _________.
An action potential is followed by a brief _________ period, when the neuron regains its _______ charge.
The breaks between segments of an axon's myelin sheath are termed _________.
nodes of Ranvier
The neurotransmitter dopamine is involved in:
motivation and emotion
Which neurotransmitter is CORRECTLY matched with a psychological function?
dopamine; facilitates learning
The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain is __________.
Which of the following is most common neurotransmitter?
Below the frontal lobe is the _______ lobe.
Which of the following alternatives identifies the structures in the brainstem?
medulla, pons, reticular formation
The pons serves to:
The limbic system contains each of the following structures EXCEPT the:
Information travels from our sensory receptors to the _______ in the brain, which relays it to higher association areas.
Which of the following brain structures coordinates voluntary movement?
Which of the following brain structures, located behind the brain stem, governs memory and emotion?
Which of the following brain structures performs many functions, including regulating hunger and sexual behavior?
The amygdala is to emotion as the hippocampus is to:
The outer bark-like layer of the brain is termed the _________.
Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of glial cells?
They communicate messages within the nervous system.
In which lobe is the motor cortex located?
Which of the following defines contralateral control?
The left side of the brain receives and sends information to the right side of the body and the right side of the brain receives and sends information to the left side of the body
Somatosensory cortex is to auditory cortex as the _______ lobe is to the _______ lobe.
In the ________ areas of the cortex, sensory and motor information is combined and linked with stored knowledge.
Which of the following defines neuroplasticity?
the brain can adapt to the effects of experience or damage
According to your text, our brains are most adaptable during:
The production of new neurons is called __________.
Which of the following defines brain lateralization?
The left and right brain hemisphere are specialized for different tasks or abilities
The left and right hemispheres of the brain are connected by a bundle of fibers called the ___________.
Which piece of evidence suggests a 'nurture' contribution to left-handedness?
Left-handedness is less prevalent in collectivist than in individualist societies.
Stroke patients provided our earliest understanding of the brain areas involved in:
Which research method in psychology is exemplified by the study of Phineas Gage's thought and behavior following his brain injury?
the case study method
Which technique might be best used to study the electrical activity in the brain that occur in the different stages of sleep and dreaming.
Which brain study technique below is correctly matched with its description?
fMRI - traces blood flow in the brain
Which alternative correctly pairs a brain study technique with an associated disadvantage?
fMRI - is expensive
Which alternative correctly pairs a brain study technique with a key advantage?
TMS - allows researchers to draw causal conclusions concerning the influence of brain structures on thought and behavior
Juan is applying magnetic pulses to the brains of his research participants to temporarily deactivate a brain region. Which of the following techniques is Juan using?
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
Marisol is trying a new treatment for severe depression. Brief pulses are sent through her brain. Marisol is undergoing:
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
Bundles of interconnected neurons that fire in synchrony are called ______.
The brain and the spinal cord constitute the _________ nervous system.
Which of the following alternatives correctly orders branches of the nervous system from the broadest to the most specific?
peripheral → autonomic → sympathetic
The central nervous system consists of _____________. The peripheral nervous system comprises _____________.
the brain and the spinal cord; the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Sensory is to motor as _______ is to ________.
Regarding the spinal cord's control of behavior, which of the following is true?
The spinal cord can control some simple reflexes without the brain's help.
Automatic, involuntary responses to stimuli are termed __________.
Excitation is to rest as ______ is to ________.
Izzy's pupils are dilated and her heart is pounding; her breathing is shallow and rapid. Her _________ nervous system is active.
The endocrine system influences:
Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between the central nervous system and the endocrine system?
The endocrine system is linked to the central nervous system
Which of the following is considered the 'master gland' of the endocrine system?
the pituitary gland
The endocrine system is linked to the _________ in the brain, via the _______ gland.
Which of the following alternatives correctly pairs an endocrine gland with its function?
pancreas - regulates sugar in the blood
Which of the following sequences reflects the order in which nervous and endocrine system structures respond to the environment, from first to last?
hypothalamus → pituitary gland → endocrine glands
Which alternative matches a hormone with the correct function?
estrogen - involved in the development of female sex features
Testosterone is to male as _______ is to female.
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