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AP English Language and Composition (2nd Set)

Abel, words 51-100
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Compound Sentence
contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction or by a semicolon- for example, "The singer bowed to the audience, but she sang no encores."
Concession
a reluctant acknowledgement or or yielding
Confirmatio (L)
confirmation- the part of an argument in which the speaker or writer would offer proof or demonstration of a central idea.
Conjunction
the part of speech that serves to connect to words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. FANBOYS: For, And, But, Or, Yet, So.
Concrete Words
Describe things that exist and can be experienced through the senses
Connotation
that which is implied by a word, as opposed to the word's literal meaning (denotation)
consonance
Repitition of of identical consonant sounds within two or more words in close proximity.
Context
the convergence of time, place, audience, and motivating factors in which a piece of writing or a speech is situated; or words, events, or circumstances that help determine meaning.
Coordination
grammatical equivalence between parts of a sentence often through a coordinating conjunction such as "and" or "but"
Counterargument
a challenge to a position; an opposing argument
Cumulative Sentence
(loose sentence)- an independent clause followed by subordinate clauses, or phrases that supply additional detail-for example. "i look forward to a great future in America, a future in which our country will match its military strength with our moral restraint, its wealth with our wisdom, its power with our purpose."- John F. Kennedy
Data
facts. statistics, and examples that speaker/writer offers in support of a claim, generalization and conclusion.
Declarative Sentence
a sentence that makes a statement-for example, "A banker is a person who will loan you his umbrella when the sun is shining but wants it back the minute it begins to rain." -Mark Twain
Deductive Reasoning
reasoning that begins with a general principle and concludes with a specific instance that demonstrates the general principle (general to specific)
Denotation
the literal or dictionary definition of a word, in contrast to its connotation or implied meaning.
Dependent Clause
(subordinate Clause) because of a subordinating word that comes at the beginning of the clause, it is not a sentence and cannot stand alone-for example, "Your paper, which must be ten pages in length is due on Friday."
Description
involves the use of vivid words to express what the five senses are experiencing
Dialect
the describable patterns of language-grammar and vocabulary-used by a particular cultural or ethnic population
Dialogue
conversation between and among characters
Diction
word choice frequently divided into four levels: formal (Academic Writing), informal (common in conversation), colloquial, and slang.
Didactic
writing whose purpose is to instruct or teach; it is usually formal and focuses on moral or ethical concerns.
Discourse
a discussion on a specific topic
Either or Fallacy
arguing that a complex situation can simply be explained one of two ways; in Latin- Reductio ad Absurdum which literally means to "reduce to the absurd"
Elegiac
mournful over what has passed or been lost; often used to describe tone
Ellipsis
indicated by a series of three periods, it indicates that some material had been omitted from a given text. It could be a word, a phrase, a partial sentence, or a whole section
Epigram
a brief, witty statement
Epigraph
the use of a quotation at the beginning of a work that hints at its theme
Epistrophe
the repetition of a a group of words at the end of successive clauses-for example, "They say no evil, they spoke no evil, and they heard no evil"
Epithet
a word or phrase adding a characteristic to a person's name-for example, "Richard the Lion-hearted"
Ethos
appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker, writer, or narrator.
Euphemism
a more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable-for example, "He went to his final reward" is a common euphemism for "he died". They are often used to obscure the reality of the situation.
Exclamatory sentence
provides emphasis or expressing strong emotion; generally begins with how or what-for example, "what a beautiful day!"
Exordium (L)
The introduction of a spoken/written argument, meant to draw the audience in.
Exposition
background information presented in a literary work.
Extended Metaphor
a comparison developed at great length, occurring frequently throughout the work.
Fallacy
an error in logic
Flashback
a shift in the narrative that interrupts the normal chronological development of the story.
Figurative Language
writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to e imaginative and vivid.
Figure of Speech
an expression that strives for literary effect rather than conveying literal meaning. Include: apostrophe, hyperbole, irony metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement.
Fragment
a word, phrase, or clause that does not form a complete sentence
Generalization
a point that the speaker/ writer generates on the basis of considering a number of particular examples
Genre
a piece of writing classified by type-for example a letter, narrative, eulogy, or editorial
Glittering Generality
a propaganda device which employs the use of a phrase that inspires strong feelings in the receiver.
Hasty Generalization
making a unsound inductive inference based on insufficient, inadequate, and unspecified evidence.
Homily
a term literally meaning "sermon", but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
Hortatory
urging or strongly recommending
hyperbole
exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis; it may also be ironic; the opposite of understatement.
image
a passage of text that evokes sensation or emotional intensity.
Imagery
The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. On a physical level, __ uses terms related to the five senses; we refer to visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory. For example, a rose may present visual __ while also representing the color in a woman's cheeks.
Imperative Sentence
a sentence that gives a command-for example, "Bring me your paper immediately"