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proposed that all matter is made up of atoms and established ideas about how atoms combine to form compounds in definite proportions.
uses stopping voltage to determine the energy of electrons, and enabled Planck's constant to directly relate frequency to energy.
number of waves that pass a point during a certain time period. Defined as the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time (1 second)
bundles of light energy that is emitted by electrons as they go from higher energy levels to lower energy levels. Particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy.
Each element has a unique bright-line emission spectrum
What is the significance of the Line Emission Spectrum?
electrons fill the lowest energy orbitals first. An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it.
Within a sublevel,place one electron per orbital before pairing them up. "urinal analogy"
a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy that it has in its ground state.
Magnetic quantum number
symbolized by m, indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus.
Spin quantum number
has only two possible values (+1/2, or -1/2) which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
All atoms of the same element are identical, other atoms are different. Proposed that atoms are small, uniformely dense, and indivisible.
Crooke & Thomson
used a cathode ray tube. Determined that atoms also contain witin themselves small negatively charged particles. They discovered the electron, the 'first' subatomic particle.
He tested Thomson's model with the gold foil experiment. According to Thomson's model, radiation particles should not be deflected. but in his experiment, some radiation was deflected.
Discovered the neutron. He reevaluates data and proposes that the radiation was actually a "massive" particle.
The wavefunction helps describes the location of the electron, and its probable location. Electrons have a wavelenght.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
impossible to know both the velocity and position of an electron at the same time.
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