Theories of how man came to this continent
bering straight theory, chinese junk theory, land bridge theory, & kon tiki theory
Bering Straight Theory
at some point native american ancestors left Mongolia, probably between 12,000 & 60,000 years ago, a land bridge called Beringia provided a way for man to cross over to North America. Think that the water froze &l locked up. There is archaeological & biological evidence to support this theory.
Chinese Junk Theory
Gavin Menzies wrote a book in regard to his theory saying that the Chinese discovered america before anyone else. Based on an anchor found that was thought to belong to a Chinese Junk (boat) because it was so enormous in size. Not enough evidence.
Kon Tiki Theory
Kon Tiki s a raft made out of logs. Thor Heyerdahl believes that north american ancestors aren't from Asia but Polynesia, he made a raft to sail in effort to prove that it was possible.
spent many years in the far east & came back with stories of great wealth-- China conquered and closed that route that they were using so turn people to a "sea route" especially Portugal.
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journies until the time of his death in 1503. He was an outsider who was granted noble status by the Spanish monarchs. One one of the 4 voyages he claimed to have found the Garden of Eden. He left the port city Palo, in 1492.
misconceptions upon which Columbus based his optimism regarding the New World
he believed Asia extended much farther East than it does, believed there was nothing between Europe and Asia, and believed in the main idea of the work Imago Mundi.
A book written by Pierre d'Ailly in the late 1300s and early 1400s. It held a comprehensive look on what was known about the world's geography at the time and taught the possibility of reaching the Indies by the West. In fact, d'Ailly was so confident in his own reasoning he alleged the authority of Aristotle, Pliny, and Seneca. His views were then used by Columbus, who used them as reasoning in his undertaking to reach the Indies. Columbus even had his own copy of the book which he filled with many notes and ideas that can now be found in Seville's Biblioteca Colombina.
The exchange of goods and other things, such as disease from the Old World (Europe) to the new World (North and South America) and back.
The Italian sailor who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of America as a new world. America is named after him
Papal Line of Demarcation
line drawn by the Pope dividing the land in the New World into 2 parts, with Portugal being granted the East and Spain being granted the West. Spain had a more significant amount of land.
Vasco de Balboa
1513, spanish explorer who traveled across modern day Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean.
In 1540-1542, searched for fabled golden cities, which turned out to be adobe pueblos. Wandered all to Arizona and New Mexico discovering the grand Canyon & the Colorado River and enormous herds of bison.
Hernando de Soto
Spanish Conquistador; explored in 1540's from Florida west to the Mississippi with six hundred men in search of gold; discovered the Mississippi, a vital North American river.
1491-1557 French explorer who began the first of his voyages to Canada in search of the NorthWest Passage. During his second voyage, 1535-1536, Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence River as far as the present site of Quebec city. Cartier's voyages established France's claims to North America.
Samuel de Champlain
"Father of New France". He sailed up St Lawrence River, and founded the city of Quebec in 1608.
Robert Cavelier de la Salle
In 1682, he led an expedition to the mouth of Mississippi River and claimed all the land- the entire Mississippi River valley for France and called it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV.
An English explorer who, in 1609, explored for the Dutch. He claimed the Hudson River around present day New York and called it New Netherland. He also had the Hudson Bay & strait named after him.
a settlement established by the Dutch near the mouth of Hudson River and the southern end of Manhattan Island, is now New York.
Queen of England from 1558 to 160. Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; she succeeded Mary I (who was a Catholic) and restored Protestantism to England. Under her reign, England begins to explore New World. She established Church of England as their church and established British navy that defeats Spanish Armada.
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland.
Henry the 7th, English king, sent John Cabit for a voyage west on a ship King is ignoring the pope's line deal. In 1497 Cabit lands in Newfoundland. Cabit's impact is hat the English claim North America where they landed as their own.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
In 1588, the battle was between England and Spain. The English were the ones who defeated the Spanish Armada who were thought to be unbeatable. This was under Elizabeth I's reign. Significance: cleared the way for English to start colonies in America, if Spanish would have won that would have been the language/culture here as opposed to English.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
The English explorer who tried to establish a colony on the coast of New Foundland and died in 1583 in a storm at sea.
Had a strong belief that there was a northwest passage. Thought that they should establish colonies and find it. Queen liked him & showed favor to him. Had to ask Queen for charter/patent: permission from the queen to colonize. He sent Martin Frobisher several voyages to the New World, he brought back fools gold. He eventually obtained charter from the queen. Gilbert goes, his goal is to settle along Rhode Island, south of Newfoundland. Eventually left and landed in New Finland to take possession of land in name of Cabot. On the way home their ship disappeared and they were never seen again.
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
Gilbert's half brother,obtained a 6 year charter and renew mission in his brother's name. Sends his cousin Richard Gremville to scout the area that year. End up on an island and call it Roanoke, takes settlers there and leaves them there with native indians. Next year English ships arrived and settlers left as fast as they could so no one was there. Raleigh sends another voyage with 117 men, women, and children to Roanoke to pick up where the others left off because they didn't do very well. John White leads this expedition. After they get there a month later White leaves and goes back to England for supplies. Then Spanish-English battle happens & he can't go back to Roanoke in case England needs the ships for battle. When he finally went back years later no one was there but there was "Croatan" written on a doorknob. Croatoan was the name of a friendly Indian tribe in the area.
Established in 1587 in Virginia. Called the "Lost Colony". It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them. Only clue was "Croatan" written on doorknobs, which was the name of a friendly Indian tribe in the area.First attempt at English colonization.
simply left & went into other areas
disease killed them, not strong because no bodies were found and the houses were gone
hurricane came through, prone to them, but fences were still standing
some say Indians killed them
others say they became Indians and married in with them
some freaks even say that there was a drought that killed them, they can decipher this by looking at tree rings
Most likely that they were killed, with no leader they were easy prey.
governor of Roanoke appointed by Sir Walter Raleigh who left to go back to England for more food & supplies, got held up by the war & found everyone in Roanoke gone.
Name of Captain John White's granddaughter, who was the first English child born in America. She disappeared with everyone else in Roanoke.
King of England (1603-1625) and of Scotland as James VI (1567-1625). The son of Mary Queen of Scots, he succeeded the heirless Elizabeth I as the first Stuart king of England. His belief in the divine right of kings and his attempts to abolish Parliament and suppress Presbyterianism in Scotland created resentment that led to the English Civil War.
Elizabeth dies and not one English colonist is left
James I of England: thinks that there might be a better way to colonize the New World other than sending people there. They organized Joint-Stock Companies: sell stock to investors and called themselves stock holders. They would invest but they would not be the ones to go and hope to benefit from it financially. Directors were formed to be in charge.
James 1st had three groups in England: catholic, puritan, and ? so est Hampton Court to work out differences. Threatens with reform or they will be exiled. Puritans split: non- conformists: stay in england but purify to get rid of parts others dislike. Separatists: break away and get out of England to start fresh, pilgrams
Joint-stock company made up of the Virginia Company of Plymouth (north) and the Virginia Company of London (south) that founded the colony of Virginia in order to try and make profit. A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607: founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies: comfirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights: 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.
reasons for exploration
money, wealth, gold, northwest passage, 7 cities of gold, religious purposes
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
1607* in may after 4 weeks at sea 105 men that were part of the london company landed in virginia and established Jamestown: 1st permanent English colony. They were looking for riches, gold, business opportunities. Weren't looking to stay there, built huts, a church, a few forts. WInter came and it was difficult, about 40 to 50 survived the first winter, the rest died.
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
imposed order on the colonists, he was a member of the council. If you don't work you don't eat, that is how they survived the first winter. King back home realized after first winter that structure needed to be redefined.
Sir Thomas Gates
is the temp. governor. he was taking the real governor Lord De la War but he got shipwrecked in Bermuda and didn't make it back until about a year later. When he returned almost everything and everyone was gone, headed back to England and meet De la War & convinced to turn back around.
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
introduced the cultivation of tobacco which he learned from the Indians and that completely changed Jamestown and it finally flourished. Served as an example for future colonies that is isn't about gold, but farming to be successful. ---40,000 people in Jamestown from 150 because of Tobacco transforming the colony and making it permanent.
A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powahatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him; about 1595-1617; Pocahontas' brave actions in saving an Englishman paved the way for many positive English and Native relations.
Powhaten: father of Pocohanttis and leader. Kidnapped her and John Rolfe decided to marry her. After married she took the name Rebecca.
break away and get out of England to start fresh, pilgrims. William Brewster led a group to Newnetherland, stayed for around 10 years but their children were learning dutch culture/language so they came back for a bit to England and ask permission to organize and go to Virginia. Thomas Weston pays and they go on mayflower & form plymouth company.
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
The 2nd English colony established by the English Pilgrims, or Seperatists, in 1620. The Seperatists were Puritans who abandoned hope that the Anglican Church could be reformed. Plymouth became part of Massachusetts in 1691.
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
an English born military officer hired by the Pilgrims as military advisor for Plymouth colony. Worked on Colonial defense; on Mayflower. often remembered for his bravery in battle and his reputation as the military captain of the Pilgrims.
woodsman, he knew how to survive in the wilderness and taught them how to cut trees, build structures, ect
Native American who helped the English colonists in Massachusetts develop agricultural techniques (fish, farm and hunt) and served as an interpreter between the colonists and the Wampanoag.
Native American of Wampoga Indians who welcomed pilgrims and befriended them; gave Pilgrims useful information about the peoples and places in the area. First to greet them & introduce them.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Puritans that were not of the 2 groups, they had a different view of who they were, believed they had a very special mission from God. Idea of Elect still present only holding office, and trying to intertwine church and state. "City Upon a Hill"-a shining example of what it can be was their purpose.
, One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Led the Great Migration.
model of christian charity
famous sermon given by John Winthrop during the voyage across the Atlantic, telling his followers that they were going to found "A city on a hill"
when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times.
thousands & thousands of people came to massachusetts bay colony led by John Winthrop
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south.
Minister from Salem and preached separation of church and state and was banished and told to go back to England. Instead he went to live with some Indian people and bought some land from them called provenance.
A dissenter from the Massachusetts Bay Colony who was banished and established colonies that eventually joined together to form Rhode Island.
Triangular Trade Routes
colonies are not going to be independent when it comes to business/commerce there is a relationship.
northern industry: fishing, timber and lumber, building ships, fur. Naval Stores: pitch, tar, turpentine
middle: grain, bread, wheat, corn
southern: 3 major crops: tobacco, rice, indigo,
shipping routes developed between North America, Africa and Europe with a foucs on sugar, rum and slaves
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests.
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
were passed to impose restrictions on colonies. Dutch were best with trade. --- prevent them from trading with everyone else. 1st act: navigation of 1651: any product entering England must be on a ship with an English crew can also be from a ship from the country who made the product. --goal was to restrict dutch trade 2nd in 1660: kept initial provisions but had to export goods to england or to other english colonies. 3rd/last: staple act: good or product-- any european country that is going to send anything to english colonies has to go to England first--smuggling becomes an issue. go on for about 100 years. Purpose: control colonies and make them work of England.
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
king Philip's war
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
1637 The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
dominion of new england
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Within Bay Colony- 2nd example of colony turmoil within. King Charles says that Bay Colony needs to be reorganized and that the bible has too much influence and needs to change. Revoked the charter and molded all the english colonies into one: Dominion of New England which allows England to enforce the Navigation Acts & easier to administer one then several and better for defense. Colonists did not like this. Edmond Andros: harsh governor sent over to the Bay Colonies and wants to make Church of England the official church of Bay Colony and abolish various assemblies. --a lot of people pissed off & turmoil.
salem witchcraft trials
trials in Salem Massachusetts in 1691, that led to the deaths of twenty people after young girls charged people with practicing witchcraft.
Reverend Parris's black slave from Barbados. Tituba agrees to perform voodoo at Abigail's request.
1690-Salem's minister who called for the condemnation of witches led by his daughter Betty's bizarre behavior. Namely accusing tituba(slave) of witchcraft. Significance: Strong driver of tensions and chaos in Salem and one of its first accusors.
Midwife at birth of three Putnam babies who were born dead; accused witch; one of the first three women to be accused of witchcraft in the Salem witch trials of 1692. Also well respected woman and church member
Francis Nurse's wife. Rebecca is a wise, sensible, and upright woman, held in tremendous regard by most of the Salem community. However, she falls victim to the hysteria when the Putnams accuse her of witchcraft and she refuses to confess.
Giles Corey's third wife. Martha's reading habits lead to her arrest and conviction for witchcraft.