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Terms in this set (131)
The scientific study of mind and behavior.
Our private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings.
Observable actions of human beings and nonhumans animals.
The philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn.
The philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience.
A now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from momory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain.
The study of biological processes, esecially in the human body.
Sensory input from the environment.
The amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus.
A person's subjective experience of the world and the mind.
The analysis of the basic elements that consitite the mind.
The subjective observation of one's own experience.
The study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment.
Charles Darwin's theory that features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent genrations.
A temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences.
The part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Sigmund Freud's approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.
A therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders.
An approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings.
An approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior.
An action or physiological change elicted by a stimulus.
The consequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again.
Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality.
A psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts.
The scientific study of mental processe, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning.
An approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes/
A field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity.
A psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection
A subfield of psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior
the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members
The belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired though observation.
A set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence.
A hypothetical explanation of natural phenomenon.
A falsifiable prediction made by a theory.
A set of rules and techniques for observation.
A description of a property in concrete, measurable terms.
A device that can detect the condition to which an operational definition refers.
a device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person's skin
The extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related.
The tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing.
The ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition.
Those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think they should.
A technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments.
an observation whose true purpose is hidden from the researcher as well as from the participant
A graphical representation of measurements arranged by the number of times each measurement was made.
A mathematically defined frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the middle.
The value of the most frequently observed measurement.
The average value of all the measurements.
The value that is in the middle i.e. greater than or equal to half the measurements and less than or equal to half the measurements.
The value of the largest measurement in a frequency distrbution minus the value of the smallest measurement.
A statistic that describes the average difference between the measuremens in a frequency distribution and the mean of that distribution.
A property whose value can vary across indiduals or over time.
Two variables are said to be correlated when variations in the calue of one variable are synchronized with variations in the value of the other.
A measure of the direction and strength of a correlation, which is signigied by the letter r.
A correlations observed in the world around us.
The fact that two variables may be correlated only because they are both caused by a third variable
a technique whereby the participants in two samples are identical in terms of a third variable
a technique whereby each participant in one sample is identical to one other participant in another sample in terms of a third variable
The fact that a causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the naturally occurring correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of third-variable correlation.
A technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables.
The creation of an artificial pattern of variation in a variable in order to determine its causal powers.
The variable that is manipulated in an experiment.
The group of people who are treated in a particular way, as compared to the control group, in an experiment.
The group of people who are not treated in the paritcular way that the experimental group is treated in an experiment.
the variable that is measured in an experiment.
A problem that occurs when anything about a person determines whether he or she will be included in the experimental or control group.
A procedure that uses a random even to assign people to the experimental or control group.
The characteristic of an experiment that establishes the causal relationship between variables.
A property of an experiment in which the variables have been operationally defined in a normal, typical or realistic way.
The complete collection of partcipants who might possibly be measured.
The partial collection of people drawn from a population.
A method of gathering scientific knowledge by studing a single individual.
a technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
a written agreement to participate in a study made by a person who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail
a verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study.
Cells in the nercous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks.
The part of a neuron that coordinates information-processing tasks and keep the cell alive.
The part of a neuron that receices information from other neurons and relays it to cell body.
The part of a neuron that transmits information to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
An insulating layer of fatty material.
Support cells found in the nerous system.
The junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another.
Neurons that receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord.
Neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement.
Neurons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or orther interneurons.
The difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrance.
An electic signal tat is conducted along a neuron's axon to a synapse.
The time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be intiated.
Knobike structures that branch out from an axon.
Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites.
Parts of the cell membrance that receive the neurotransmitter and intiate or prevent a new electric signal.
A neurotransmitter involved in a number of functions, including voluntary motor control.
A neurotransmitter that regulates motor behaior, motivation, pleasure, and emotional arousal.
A major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transmission throughout the brain.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
The primary inhibitory neurotransmitter that influences mood and arousal.
A neurontransmitter that is involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating, and aggressive behavior.
Chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotions centers of the brain.
Drugs that increase the action of neurotransmitter.
Drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter.
An interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information through the body.
central Nervous system (CNS)
The part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nercous system (PNS)
The part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles.
Somatic nervous system
a set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous system.
autonomic nervous system
A set of nerves that carroes involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands.
sympathetic nervous system
a set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations.
parasympatetic nervous system
A set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state.
simple pathways in the nerous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions.
an area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord.
an extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation and respiration.
A brain structure that regulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels of arousal.
A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.
a brain structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain.
A part of the midbrain that orients an organism in the environment.
A part of the midbrain that is involved in movement and arousal.
The outermost layer of the brain, visible to the naked eye, and divided into two hemispheres.
Areas of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the very center of the brain.
A group of forebrain structures including the hypothaiamus, the amygdala, and the hippocampus, which are involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory.
The master gland of the body's hormone-producing system, which releases hormones that direct the function of many other glands in the body.
A structure critical for creating new memories abd integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex.
A part of the limbic system that plays a central role in many emotional processes, particularly the formation of emotional memories.
A set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements.
A thick band of nerve fibers that connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports commuication of information across the hemispheres.
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
A region of the cerebral cortez whose functions include processing information about touch.
A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning memory and judgement.
areas of the cerebral cortex that are compsed of neurons that help provided sense and meaning to information registered in the cortex.
The unit of hereditary transmission.
Strands of DNA wound around each other in a double-heliz configuration.
A measure of the variability of behaviral traits among individuals that can be accounted for by genetic factors.
A device used to record electrical activity in the brain.
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