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Roman History

Terms in this set (112)

Parthia- Rivalry would dominate all of western asia and Europe. During Vespasians rule, Parthia seemed to make some attempts to strengthen ties between Rome and Partia against sarmatian tribes. Vespasian refused. Rome added a king in Parthia that worked in favor for the roman empire. Parthia was replaced by Sassanids in 226 CE, which was more stable and organized, leading to more aggression and threat towards Rome. Romans were eventually successful in warding off the persians. Their conflicts added a religious element at the adoption of monotheism. Roman invasion frequently weakened persian dynasties.

Gaul- Julius Caesar was a council in Gaul. He had a hard time controlling gaul. Gaulians had many revolts but were suppressed by ROme. The process to rule gaul was long. Provincial governorships in Gaul were exploitative of Gaul's people, which encouraged mini rebellions due to damaged legitimacy of Roman rule. Rome had successful power of Gaul; oppressed Gaul's people, as Gaulians always lost in court.

Germany- tacitus a good source. Domitians rule, augustus lost 300 troops. German tribes were very violent and resisted roman rule. They defeated Romans at the battle of the Teutoburg forest in 9 AD by ambush attack. Rome never attempted to gain territory east Rhine river. Roman foreign policy was not successful in controlling German rebellion.

Judea- King herod had a good relationship with Trajan and the Roman empire. Making them inadvertely successful. Herod adopted many Roman customs. They made agreements as acknowledgment of own nations. After king Herod died, there was a lot of turmoil because they didn't want Judaea to go to Herod's son because they would become suppressed to Roman empire. They were split between three religious beliefs of that time; Jews, non-jews, and christians. Jew rebellion was a major threat and led to loss of jewish independence, change of religious practices, and sharper divisions.

Egypt- They were pretty successful in Egypt because Cleopatra died. Egypt became the source of Rome's grain supply. They were easily suppressed like Gaul, but had occasional uprisings.

Tacitus, Arigola is good source for germany and britain
Diocletian (284-305): numerian troops killed and also cairns. Led religious persecution of christians that kept empire in control. He changed role of the prefectures. 1) Italy 2) Gaul 3) Illyricum 4) Orient
- He had 100 provinces
- rewrote job descriptions
- he updated military defense strategy by splitting palaces The military grew to about 400,000-600,000 men. He had 65 legions, but reduced legions to 1000 each to limit overrule of generals.
-Centralize authority over prices everywhere (Edict of Maximian, or rising prices.) Vendors had to sell everything at the highest price to give money to emperor that went to military
-Military reforms required more money, takes were now collected by state office.


Constantine: Known for conversion. He had invasion of Italy in 312, won when Maxentinius died. Maximinius committed suicide in turkey. Liciunius & Constantine only agreed on christianity. He was sent to exile at Thessonlonica

Empire (324-337): east and west argue about trinity. Resistance to authorities was against God's will.
-his son would later transform mausoleum into church of Holy apostles.

-Constantine followed footsteps of diolcetion. They both supported military and admin. reforms that put the empire an secure place. Constantine differed w/ Dicoletian on two fundamental issues. HE ENDED TETRARCHY
1) Succession; in 305 Diocletian and maximan were abdicated leaving a new tetrarchy in power.
-Constantine built power base in Gaul and Britain ; italy went for maxentius in civil wars of 311.
2) Christianity; constantines conversion at the battle of the Milvian Bridge in Rome 313. He allows Gallerius to end Dio's persecution through the edict of Toleration. Constantine led the council of christian bishops 325 at Council of Nicaea.

Both: centralized power, unified empire, added divine support, succession, kill opponents.