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Parasitology - Nematodes
Terms in this set (23)
Describe 3 facts of nematodes
- Vary in size from the microscopic to the very large (>1m or 3-4 feet long)
- Elongate, worm-like, and taper at both ends
- The surface can have many modifications that can be usful for identification purposes, such as alae, ridges, warts, anterior bulb, or shield-like collar around mouth.
Nematodes undergo incremental growth punctuated by...
molts of the cuticle
Usually __ larval stages and variations among parasites as to which is the ______ ___
larval stages and variations among parasites as to which is the
Nematode found in dogs and wild canids; ZOONOTIC disease (VLM and OLM); transmission to canines occurs by several methods (Direct, transplacental, transmammary, paratenic host)
Nematode found in cats; ZOONOTIC; similar transmission methods to Toxocara canis, except only direct and paratenic transmission; similar clinically to Toxocara canis
Nematode found in dogs, cats, foxes, wolves; life cycle uses direct and paratenic host transmission; eggs develop very quickly in the environment (3-6 days); clinical disease is rarely observed
Nematode found in raccoons, sometimes dogs; ZOONOTIC!; direct development in small intestine of adults (no migration); transmission via direct (juveniles) and paratenic hosts (adults); generally no clinical signs of disease in racoons
What has affected over 100 species of animals, including humans?
What are Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM)?
larvae migrating through liver and lungs resulting in fever, hepatomegaly, prenumonia, etc.
What are Ocular Larva Migrans (OLM)?
causes unilateral ocular disease
What are Neural Larva Migrans (NLM)?
migration of larvae and larval growth in the brain and spinal cord
T or F: For ascarid treatment, arrested larvae are easy to kill with current anthelmintics
False. Difficult to kill
For ascarid treatment, perform strategic deworming protocols to prevent...
transplacental and transmammary transmission
T or F: For ascarid treatment, you must also treat the bitch since she may reinfect herself by ingesting infective larvae from pup's feces
Ascarid eggs are ___ to most environmental conditions and will remain ___ for many years
Ascarid eggs are
to most environmental conditions and will remain
for many years
Steps to "clean up" environment include:
- Entomb with concrete or remove top 6 inches of soil
- Kennels thoroughly cleaned of organic debris
- Decontaminate with 1% bleach solution (won't kill eggs)
- Hot boiling water to spot clean
- Flaming with propane torch
What are the prepatent periods for T. canis?
- direct transmission, pups < 3 mos. of age; tracheal migration- 4 - 5 weeks
- transplacental transmission, following tracheal migration- 3 - 4 weeks after pup is born
- transmammary transmission- 2 - 3 weeks after pup is born
- paratenic host transmission- 2 - 3 weeks
What are the prepatent periods for T. cati?
direct transmission- ~ 8 weeks
paratenic host transmission- ~ 3 weeks
What are the prepatent periods for T. leonina?
direct transmission- ~ 10.5 weeks
What are the prepatent periods for B. procyonis?
direct transmission in young raccoons- 50 - 76 days
Paratenic host transmission in adult raccoons- 32 - 38 days
Nematode in swine; ZOONOTIC; tracheal migration after ingestion of infective eggs; clincal disease as "thumps" and "milk spots", also stunted growth, diarrhea, interference with nutrient absorption, and possible perforation of the intestine
Nematode in horses; direct infection with tracheal migration; foals (3-9 months) most susceptible; coughing, eosinophilia, diarrhea, poor appetite, failure to thrive, perforate or obstruct bowel (colic)
Pregnant mares and sows should be dewormed...
prior to giving birth
Also should be thoroughly washed and placed in clean pens prior to giving birth, keep stalls clean after deliver, sanitation
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