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Comm 102 Exam 1

University of Michigan Communications 102 Exam 1
STUDY
PLAY
Jerry Falwell
Concerned about the impact of cartoons on children (Teletubbies)
MOM
Money, Organization, Media. Important for political campaigns
Watchdog Function
Monitor what people are saying in the media.
Negative/Attack Ads
Not always true. Create false identities.
Forms
genres or types of programs/articles
Channels
Communication media and technologies
Encoding
Generates the content. Processes of message construction.
Decoding
What the viewer/audience gets from the program. Understanding, interpreting and applying. Effects.
Domains
Topical areas (politics, health, violence, etc)
Levels
Scope, how broad? (Individual, small group, social groups, society, etc.)
Cognitive Effect
"What you think" Knowledge and beliefs. Information holding, gained etc. Changing values. Media cultivated stereotypes.
Affective Effect
"How you feel" Emotions and moods, positive, negative, ambivalent. Attitudes.
Emotion
Concrete object, feeling toward a certain thing/person.
Mood
General feeling or state (you feel sad, depressed, happy, etc.)
Attitudes
Global affective evaluations. Very broad, coula have multiple emotional reactions but a common attitude.
Behavioral Effect
"What you do" Concrete responses to messages. Observable, anti-social or pro-social.
Content-Dependent Effect
Specific media content is linked to specific effects.
Content-Irrelevant Effect
Time/activity displacement effects. Irrelevant outcome in relation to the cause.
Intended Effect
Planned. (Persuasive campaigns)
Unintended Effect
Accidental. Unintended by-product. Could be negative or positive.
David Phillips
Studied the possibility of suicides linked to media coverage.
Rescheduling Effect
Changes the time at which an event happens, but not whether or not the event will occur.
Additive Effect
Increases likelihood of event. Causes you to do something you weren't planning to.
Change Effect
Changes your opinion or behavior.
Reinforcement Effect
To stabilize, reinforce brand loyalty, keep the customers buying, earlier and more frequently.
Conversion Effect
Intent is to persuade audience. Very difficult to convince people to change their brand loyalty but is the ideal situation.
Inoculation Effect
Prevent change (intent of reinforcement). Example: Anti-smoking campaigns that target young people so that they will not start smoking.
Micro Effect
Affects an individual or small group.
Macro Effect
Affects masses (provokes a nation wide effect)
Meso Effect
Mostly affecting small groups
Long-Term Effect
Enduring (lasts a long time), cumulative (increases over time or after repeated exposure), delayed (effect occurs long after exposure, usually involves a trigger, but is then engrained into memory)
Short-Term Effect
Effects that take place right after exposure to a media use
Categorizing Media Effects
Any given media influence can be described as a combination of different dimensions of effects
Who can benefit from media effects research?
Federal agencies, producers, audiences (parents, educators, etc.), academics.
Folk Wisdom
Widely accepted as knowledge, but not always valid.
Common Sense
Self-evident, widely known and usually true.
Empiricism
Learning from personal experiences and personal observations. Casual and unsystematic. Could reach a conclusion that is solidly wrong.
Authority
Truth is established through a trusted source such as religious leaders, government officials and experts.
Problems with authority learning
1. You rely on experts, however they might not always have the "expertise" with which we credit them. 2. Blind allegiance to authority could have debilitating results on our search for reliable knowledge. 3. Authority figures could have various interests to protect.
Systematic Observation
A system for recording observations; each observation is recorded using specific rules or guidelines, so observations are more objective.
Casual Observation
Untested, unreferenced statement, conclusion is unreliable; it may not be untrue, but it doesn't follow from the "evidence".
Three Goals of Science
Explanation (understanding of why), Prediction (foretelling the future), Control (-->prevention and intervention)
Inaccurate Observation
Casual and semiconscious
Selective Observation
We tend to focus only on certain events that support our thoughts or interests and ignore others.
Overgeneralization
We take one or a few observations and then say it represents the whole group (stereotyping)
Blind-review
Scientific research is evaluated by anonymous peer reviewers
Mystification
Belief that certain things are unknowable
Theory
GENERAL. Systematic explanations and predictions of a phenomenon. A set of generalizations that explain observable phenomena by posing some relationships among variables.
Hypothesis
A SPECIFIC statement or prediction that can be tested by means of gathering empirical evidence.
Variable
A phenomenon/event that we observe, whose attributes VARY across individuals. To which more than one value can be assigned. NEED TO VARY (gender is not a variable)
Independent Variable
Cause
Dependent Variable
Effect, consequence, and outcome.
Establishing Causality
Changes in dependent variable are caused by changes in the independent variable
Three Criteria Necessary for Causal Relationship
1. Cause and effect must be correlated/associated. 2. Cause must come before effect. 3. Alternative explanations are eliminated (internal validity)
Conditional Effect
Media effects do not effect every person to the same magnitude. Social categories, personality, different motives for media use, resources. MODERATORS
Moderators
Cannot be changed by media use. Variable that causes conditional effect. (Example: gender, social status, etc.)
Indirect Effect
Media use generates changes in a variable, which in turn, produce changes in effects (DV). IV -> MEDIATORS -> DV
Mediators
Catalyst for dependent variable (effect) in indirect effect situations. (Example: Watch show (IV), become angry (Mediator), act violently (DV))
Experimental Method
Gathering data under controlled conditions.
Randomization (Random Assignment)
Makes the group in an experiment equivalen just prior to their exposure to the experimental manipulation. Only difference is now the independent variable.
Strengths of Experimental Research
Can afford the researcher much control to accurately infer causality.
Weaknesses of Experimental Research
Artificial settings (not naturally occurring, external validity). Can only test short-term effects.
Survey Method
Investigating people by asking questions directly. (Standardized questionnaire)
Sampling
Population (who you are interested in surveying) and sample (who you actually survey)
Random Sampling
Everyone has an equal chance of being selected into the sample. *Same as randomization in experimental research.
Cross-Section Survey
Surveying a single sample of some population, once. (Ex: Select 1000 people, survey once, analyze results)
Longitudinal Survey
Surveying at multiple times. Either trend, cohort, or panel survey.
Trend Survey
Uncovering over time, trends in a society. Surveying different groups of individuals at multiple times. Type of longitudinal survey.
Cohort Survey
Uncovering changes occurring to a generational group by surveying that same group at multiple times. Type of longitudinal survey.
Panel Survey
Uncovering changes occurring to individuals by surveying the same individuals at multiple times. Problems: retention, cost.
Sampling Error
Margin of error calculated after surveys. The responses you get from each sample are going to be slightly different.
Confidence Level
Percentage of confidence in accuracy/margin of error.
Confidence Interval
The range for the approval rating. (Example: margin of error = +/- 3%; range = 50-56%)
Strengths of Survey Research
Provides detailed description of populations. Good for assessing public opinion in the population of interest. Addresses a wide range of research topics. High generalizability.
Weaknesses of Survey Research
Based on self-reports (Ps may forget past info). Cannot establish causality: cross-section vs. longitudinal.
Content Analysis
Examining the presence, absence, or quantity of certain attributes of media messages that allegedly contribute to certain types of media impact.
Coding Scheme
The plan or process for observation; a list of attributes and characteristics a researchers looks for and counts in archival data. Resulting data can be used to make inferences and conclusions.
Intercoder Reliability
Multiple researchers analyze the content, the degree of agreement between or among independent coders (researchers).
Strengths of Content Analysis
Unobtrusive method; no impact on what is being studied. Easier and economical to conduct a longitudinal study.
Weakness of Content Analysis
Cannot establish effects.
Replication
The same result is observed over and over again by different researchers; consistency.
Triangulation
Multi-method approach; employing different methodologies in order to examine a given phenomenon.
Meta-Analysis
A systematic literature review that combines the statistical results from a large number of empirical studies conducted on the same topic.