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79 terms

AP Chem: Ch. 1-4, 5, 24

sigfigs, chemical reactions, nomenclature, gases, and some ochem too
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Alcohol
Ether
Ketone
Carboxyl
Aldehyde
Ester
Amide
Amine
alkynes
contain at least one triple bond
alkenes
contain at least one double bond
aliphatic, aromatic
the two types of hydrocarbons
saturated, unsaturated
the two types of aliphatic hydrocarbons
Cx, H2x+2
formula for the number of C's and H's in alkanes (good for isotopes)
multiple
in unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, carbons have (single/multiple) bonds
single
in saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, carbons have (single/multiple) bonds
meth
one carbon
eth
2 carbons (prefix)
prop
3 carbons (prefix)
but
4 carbons (prefix)
pent
5 carbons (prefix)
hex
6 carbons (prefix)
hept
7 carbons (prefix)
oct
8 carbons (prefix)
non
9 carbons (prefix)
deca
10 carbons (prefix)
all single bonds
the ending "ane" implies
at least one double bond
the ending "ene" implies
at least one triple bond
the ending "yne" implies
cyclo
a pre-prefix that implies there's a ring structure
yl
if an alkane is branched, we add this to the end of each component
acetate
CH3COO−
acetic acid
CH3COOH
formate
CHOO−
formic acid
HCOOH
halide
R-Cl, R-Br, R-F, and R-I are these
bromo, chloro, fluoro, iodo
halide prefixes
e to ol, propanol
alcohol naming; eg. propane
e to al, butanal
aldehyde naming; eg. butane
e to one, 2-butanone
ketone naming; eg. butane
e to oic acid, propanoic acid
carboxylic acid naming; eg. propane
prefix + ate
ester naming
oxygen
(ester naming) how to distinguish ate from prefix
name hydrocarbon groups + ether, methyl, ethyl, ether
ether naming; eg. CH3OCH2CH3
loses, raises, H, O
during oxidation, a substance ______ electrons and ________ its oxidation number through the electron carrier (O/H) or by adding (O/H)
carboxylic acid
aldehyde + (O) ->
ester + H2O
carboxylic acid + alcohol ->
manometer
a device that measures the pressure of a gas or liquid in a vessel
barometer
a device for measuring the pressure of the atmosphere
P = gdh
equation for a barometer (the relationship between the pressure P and the height h of a liquid column in a barometer or manometer)
gravity, density, height
what the "gdh" stand for in P=gdh
kg/m^3
density units for P=gdh
meter
height units for P=gdh
Yes
Will all liquids in a barometer exert the same pressure? (Y/N)
No, different density
Will all liquids have the same height in a barometer? (Y/N) + explanation
101.3 kPa = 1 atm = 760 mmHg
relate the units of pressure (kPa, atm, mmHg/torr)
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Combined Gas Law equation
Boyle's
gas law with PV constant
Gay-Lussac
gas law with P/T constant
Charles's
gas law with V/T constant
PV
constant of Boyle's law
P/T
constant of the Gay-Lussac law
V/T
constant of Charles's law
Equal volumes of any two gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules.
state Avogadro's law
22.4 L/mol
at STP, the molar gas volume is (plus units)
partial pressure
the pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture
gas molecules are negligible in size compared to the distance between them, molecules move randomly in straight lines, the forces of attraction or repulsion (intermolecular forces) are negligible except when they collide, collisions are elastic, average kinetic energy is proportional to absolute temperature
state the five postulates, roughly, of the kinetic theory
root-mean-square
what rms (in rms molecular speed) stands for
rms molecular speed
a type of average molecular speed, equal to the speed of a molecule having the average molecular kinetic energy
(3RT/Mm)^0.5
formula for rms molecular speed
m/s
units of rms molecular speed
K, kg, m^2, mol, s^2,
SI units for R when applied to molecular speed (5)
effusion
the process by which a gas flows through a small hole in a container
Graham's law of effusion
The rate of effusion of gas molecules from a particular hole is inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular weight of the gas at constant temperature and pressure.
H
A substitution reaction is a reaction in which part of a reagent molecule is substituted for an ________ atom on a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon group.
carbon-carbon multiple bond, C-C single bond
An addition reaction is a reaction in which parts of a reagent are added to each carbon atom of a ___________, which then becomes a ____________.
Markownikoff's rule
states that the major product formed by the addition of an unsymmetrical reagent such as H-Cl, H-Br, or H-OH is the one obtained with the H atom of the reagent is added to the carbon atom of the multiple bond that has the most hydrogen atoms.
iso
this prefix means "split down the middle"
split down the middle
the prefix iso- means
saponification
hydrolysis of an ester in the presence of a base