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loses, raises, H, O
during oxidation, a substance ______ electrons and ________ its oxidation number through the electron carrier (O/H) or by adding (O/H)
P = gdh
equation for a barometer (the relationship between the pressure P and the height h of a liquid column in a barometer or manometer)
Equal volumes of any two gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules.
state Avogadro's law
gas molecules are negligible in size compared to the distance between them, molecules move randomly in straight lines, the forces of attraction or repulsion (intermolecular forces) are negligible except when they collide, collisions are elastic, average kinetic energy is proportional to absolute temperature
state the five postulates, roughly, of the kinetic theory
rms molecular speed
a type of average molecular speed, equal to the speed of a molecule having the average molecular kinetic energy
Graham's law of effusion
The rate of effusion of gas molecules from a particular hole is inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular weight of the gas at constant temperature and pressure.
A substitution reaction is a reaction in which part of a reagent molecule is substituted for an ________ atom on a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon group.
carbon-carbon multiple bond, C-C single bond
An addition reaction is a reaction in which parts of a reagent are added to each carbon atom of a ___________, which then becomes a ____________.
states that the major product formed by the addition of an unsymmetrical reagent such as H-Cl, H-Br, or H-OH is the one obtained with the H atom of the reagent is added to the carbon atom of the multiple bond that has the most hydrogen atoms.
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