What percentage of all adults experience an episode of severe depression at some point in their lives?
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Since immediately after the birth of her son, Aubree has experienced a period of sadness that interferes with her ability to take care of him. She has never felt this way before, and this sadness has been going on for several weeks. With which type of major depression would Aubree MOST likely be diagnosed?
The belief that the prefrontal cortex has a very important part to play in the development of depression is probablycorrect, activity and blood flow are unusually low in certain parts and unusually high in other parts of the prefrontal cortexThe evidence MOST problematic for the psychodynamic explanations of depression is that:depression affects people who had their childhood needs met and who did not suffer a loss early in lifeA decrease in social rewards, especially a decrease in social support such as that found in a happy marriage, may precede the onset of depression, providing evidence for which theoretical perspectives?behavioral and socioculturalCognitive-behavioral theorists explain depression in terms of a person'sproblematic behaviors and dysfunctional ways of thinkingHaving a negative view of one's experiences, self, and the future is what Beck referred to as:negative thinkingRuminative responses are defined asrepeatedly dwell mentally on their mood without acting to change itMartin Seligman developed a theory based on the idea that depression results fromfeelings of helplessness; they have no control over the reinforcements in their lives; they themselves are responsible for this helpless stateWhich assumption is shared by both the cognitive-behavioral perspective and the family-social perspective regarding the roots of depression?Decline in social rewards is particularly important in the development of depressionDepression is more common in women because they experience more taxing life situations, such as poverty and menial jobs, than men. This is the:life stress theoryArtifact theory differs importantly from other sociocultural theories of depression because it suggests:that men and women are equally likely to develop depression but that clinicians often fail to detect depression in menAccording to the developmental psychopathology perspective, moderate and manageable adversities that occur during childhood may make a person more _____ when faced with stressful events during adulthoodresilientTalking rapidly, dressing flamboyantly, and getting involved in dangerous activities are _____ symptoms of mania.behavioralThe difference between bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder is the:bipolar 1= full manic and major depressive episodes bipolar 2= mildly manic episodes with major depressive episodesAlthough initially thought to be due to an excessive amount of a particular neurotransmitter, mania has been found to be due to low levels of which neurotransmitter?NorepinephrineRecent research using genetic linkage studies has looked for possible patterns of inheritance of bipolar disorders. The results suggest that:a number of genetic abnormalities probably combine to help bring about bipolar disordersSuicide is the _____ most common cause of death in the United States.10thWhich is NOT a component of Edwin Shneidman's definition of suicide?definition= an intentioned death- a self-inflicted death in which one makes an intentional, direct, and conscious effort to end one's lifeLydia smokes two packs of cigarettes a day, drinks heavily, and eats poorly. Her lifestyle ultimately contributes to shortening her life. Shneidman would classify her death as a(n):subintentional deathOne of the factors that is believed to account for differences in the suicide rates of different countries is:religious affiliation and beliefsCompared with women, men who attempt suicide tend to:die from their attempts at more than three times the rate of womenWhat group is MOST at risk for suicide?American IndiansCommonly observed triggers for suicide include all of the following EXCEPT:common triggering factors= stressful events, mood and thought changes, alcohol and other drug use, mental disorders, and modelingViewing problems and solutions in rigid either/or terms is calleddichotomous thinkingAbout what percentage of people who commit suicide use alcohol just before the act?25%The MOST common psychological disorder associated with suicide attempts is a(n):depressive/bipolar disorderA person commits suicide in response to the social environment failing to provide stable structures to support and give meaning to life. According to Durkheim, this represents an:anomic suicideBiological researchers have found a link between suicide and:aggression/low serotonin levelsThe top two leading causes of death among teenagers are:accidents and suicideThe elderly are _____ as likely as adolescents to complete suicide.50 timesDespite American Indians having the overall highest suicide rate, why might the suicide rate among elderly American Indians be low?The aged are held in high esteem by American Indians and are looked to for the wisdom and experience they have acquired over the years, and this may help account for their low suicide rate.Which statement BEST describes the effectiveness of suicide prevention programs?It is difficult for researchers to measure the effectiveness of suicide prevention programs, but generally researchers have found they can be effective and should be widely implementedOne study showed that of the high-risk suicidal people who contact a suicide crisis hotline, approximately _____ later commit suicide.2%Intentionally feigning illness to achieve some external gain is described as:malingeringA man appeared at the emergency room complaining of bloody diarrhea. The physician who examined him found that the man was intentionally creating the diarrhea through use of laxatives and anticoagulant medication and that he liked being a patient. The man is MOST likely:manifesting factitious disorderHaving a background in medicine, but also a grudge against the profession, puts a person at risk for:factitious disorderA physician confronts Addison with evidence that her symptoms are factitious. It is MOST likely that Addison will:Deny the charges and leave the facility and immediately seek treatment from another physicianBen has been a chronically ill child. After being removed from his home and placed in foster care, he became quite healthy. In this case, one might suspect that the parent (usually the mother) was experiencing:factitious disorder imposed on another/ Munchausen syndrome by proxyIf a person's bodily symptoms affect his or her voluntary motor and sensory functions, but the symptoms are inconsistent with known medical diseases, this condition is referred to as:conversion disorder/functional neurological symptom disorderWhich is likely to be useful in distinguishing conversion or somatic symptom disorders from true medical problems?Because conversion disorders are so similar to "genuine" medical ailments, physicians sometimes rely on oddities in the patient's medical picture to help distinguish the two.Why do some researchers believe mass psychogenic illnesses will increase and become more severe in the future?social media is a major factor in the current increaseThe disorder with a wide range of vague, long-lasting, and disturbing physical symptoms without a medical cause is:somatic symptom disorder/somatization patternA patient with a heart condition complains of adhesions from his postoperative scar, leg cramps, and joint stiffness. He seems to be hurting all over, but no medical reason can be found to explain the symptoms. The BEST diagnosis for this disorder is:somatic symptom disorder/ predominant pain patternBoth psychodynamic theorists and cognitive-behavioral theorists believe that in conversion disorder, the symptoms that appear:Remove the individuals from an unpleasant relationship, bring attention from other people, or help the person avoid unpleasant situationsA therapist treating a client with illness anxiety disorder repeatedly shows the client how the client's body is less than perfect, while not allowing the client to seek medical attention. MOST likely, the therapist's viewpoint is:behavioral, and the therapy is called exposure and response prevention.The traditional psychophysiological disorder most commonly associated with intense feelings of anger and the presence of bacteria is:ulcersShortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and a choking sensation are symptoms commonly associated with:asthmaHypertension that results from a combination of psychological and physiological factors is called _____ hypertension.EssentialDefects in the _____ system are thought to contribute to the development of psychophysiological disorders.Autonomic nervous systemPeople with _____ are said to be consistently angry, cynical, driven, impatient, competitive, and ambitious.Type A personality styleWhat is one of society's most negative social conditions that may set the stage for psychophysiological disorders?PovertyA contributing factor that partly explains why African Americans have more health problems than non-Hispanic white Americans is that:They have higher rates of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, & asthma. They are also more likely to die from heart disease and stroke. Many of them live in poverty so they often must contend with the high rates of crime and unemployment that often result in poor health conditions.Stress leads to increased activity by thesympathetic nervous systemOverabundance of _____ can lead to chronic inflammation throughout the body, contributing to heart disease, stroke, and other illnesses.Cytokines_____ is a field that combines psychological and physical interventions to treat or prevent medical problems.Behavioral medicineRelaxation training differs from mediation in that:relaxation is designed to relieve pain whereas mediation focuses more on overall well beingIn one study, patients with asthma and arthritis who wrote down their thoughts and feelings about stressful events for a handful of days showed lasting improvements in their conditions. This is an example of the effectiveness of:emotion expressionA college-aged woman with a history of dieting has significantly reduced her food intake. She views her constant hunger pains as a positive sign that she is maintaining control over her eating. Her weight has dropped sharply below average, but she still thinks she is overweight. You suspect possible anorexia nervosa. Which other sign or symptoms would be present with anorexia nervosa?Fear of becoming overweightWhat is the first type of food usually eliminated from the diet of a person who is developing restricting-type anorexia?Sweets and fattening snacksA person who loses weight by forcing herself to vomit after meals or by using laxatives and who otherwise fits the definition of anorexia is experiencing:binge eating/purging typeThe peak age range for the development of anorexia nervosa is:14-20The primary motivating emotion a person with anorexia experiences is:fearA modern explanation of why many people with anorexia continually have food-related thoughts and dreams is that such thoughts and dreams:Such thoughts and dreams are the result of food deprivationWhich characteristic is MOST consistent with anorexia nervosa?Body size overestimationIf a person were looking at a photograph of herself and adjusting the size until she thought the picture looked like herself, she would MOST likely be participating in an assessment of her:accuracy in estimating body size.A common cardiovascular effect of anorexia is a slow heart rate (bradycardia). Which explanation BEST describes why this is true?The body is trying to conserve energyWhich is NOT a compensatory behavior for someone with bulimia?Liquid-only dietIf a person had bulimia nervosa and engaged in frequent binges, about how many of his or her binges per week would a friend of this person expect to witness?NoneRegarding emotions, the pattern common in bulimia from pre-binge, through binge, to post-binge is BEST described in sequence as:tension, powerlessness, shameSimilarities between anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa:Begin after a period of dieting Fear of becoming obese Drive to become thin Preoccupation with food, weight, appearance Feelings of anxiety, depression, obsessiveness, perfectionism Heighted risk of suicide attempts Substance abuse Distorted body perception Disturbed attitudes toward eatingThe medical problem that is twice as frequent in women with anorexia as it is in women with bulimia isamenorrheaPeople with alexithymia are NOT able to:put descriptive labels on what they are feelingThe levels of _____ are low in many people with depression as well as those with eating disorders.SerotoninAccording to weight set point theory, which is a consequence of dieting below one's weight set point?their brain starts trying to restore the lost weight.Which person is at GREATEST risk for an eating disorder?Female in western societyA study of college men showed that they describe the ideal male as _____ and the ideal female as _____.muscular, strong and broad shoulders" to describe the ideal male body and "thin, slim, slightly underweight" to describe the ideal female bodyThe MOST appropriate diagnosis for a man who is strong and fit but does not see himself that way and continues to push himself is:muscle dysmorphia, or reverse anorexia nervosaWhich medical problem associated with anorexia is MOST likely to lead to death?Metabolic and electrolyte changesThe medication MOST helpful in the treatment of bulimia is an:antidepressant drugRelapses of people with bulimia are MOST likely to occur following:life stressesTreatments used to treat binge eating disorder are typically:offered in eating disorder clinics.