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Chapter 7 Bones and Skeletal Tissue

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What are the Eight Bones of the Canium
Frontal, Temporal, Occipital, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Parietal, Mandible, and Maxillae
What are the divisions of the spine
Cervical (7) Thoracic (12) Lumbar (5)
The Sacrum (fused 5) and the Coccyx (Fused 4)
What is the proper name for C1
The Atlas
What is the proper name for C2
The Axis
On which vertebra are facets located and what is their function?
They are located on the traverse process of the Thoracic Vertebra; their function is articulation
How many vertebra make up the vertebral column?
24 - Cervical (7) Thoracic (12) Lumbar (5)
What are the components of the Intervertebral Disc? What is it composed of?
Annulus fibrosis and Nucleus Pulposus
Fibro-cartilage
What makes up the thoracic cage? (Rib Cage)
Sternum, Costal Cartilage and Ribs
Coastal Cartilage is an example of Hyline Cartilage
What are the Rib types?
True (7), False(3) and Floating(2)
What are the parts of a rib?
Head, neck, tubercle angle, and shaft
What makes up the Pectoral Girdle?
2 Scapula, and 2 Clavicles
Define Scapula
Shoulder Blade
Define Clavicles
Collar Bone
Forehead Bone
Frontal Bone
Cheek Bone
Zygomatic
Lower Jaw
Mandible
Bridge of Nose
Nasal
Posterior bones of the hard palate (Back of the head)
Occipital
Much of the lateral and superior cranium
Parietal
Single, Irregular, Bat shaped bone that forms part of the cranial floor
Sphenoid
Tiny Bones that bear tear ducts
Lacrimal
Anterior part of hard plate
Palatine
Superior and middle nasal conchea formed from its projections
Ethmoid
Site of mastoid process
Temporal
Site of Stella Turcica
Sphenoid
The site of the Cribriform Plate
Ethmoid
Where is the Mental Foramen located?
The Mandible
The site where the styloid processes are located
Temporal
What are the four bones that contain para nasal sinuses?
Maxilla, Frontal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid
Condyles on this cranial bone articulate with the atlas
Occipital
Foramen Magnum is contained here
Occipital
A small U shaped bone in the neck where many muscles of the tongue attach. The jointless wonder
hyoid
The middle ear is found here
Palatine
The nasal septum is attached to this bone
Sphenoid
Bears an upward protrusion called the crista galli
Ethmoid
Contains Avioli bearing teeth
Maxilla
What is a suture?
An immovable joint
What is the name of the one skull bone that is not joined to others by sutures?
The Mandible
What bones are connected by the Lamdoid Suture?
The Parietal Bone and The Occipital Bone
What are two possible functions for Sinuses?
To Lighten the facial bones & they may act as resonance chambers for speech
What is the Orbit?
The eye socket
Which bones contribute to the formation of the orbit?
Frontal Bone, Sphenoid, Lacrimal, Maxilla, Zygomatic, and Ethmoid
Why is the Sphenoid called the keystone of the cranial floor?
Because it articulates with all other cranial bones
Vertebral Type containing foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries reach the brain.
Cervical Vertebra - typical
The dens here provide a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra (C1)
Axis
Transverse processes faceted for articulation with the ribs; spinous processes pointing sharply downward (Vertebra)
Thoracic Vertebra (T1-T12)
A Composite Bone; Articulates with the hipbone laterally
Sacrum
Massive weight sustaining vertebra
Lumbar Vertebra (L-1 - L-5)
Vestigial fused vertebra (tailbone)
Coccyx
Supports the head and allows a rocking motion in conjunction with the occipital condyles
Atlas
Cavity of the vertebra that encloses the nerve cord
Vertebral Foramen
Weight bearing portion of the vertebra
The Body
These provide levers against which muscles pull on the thoracic vertebra
The Superior Articular Facet
Transverse Process
Openings providing for the exit of spinal nerves in vertebra
Intervertebral Formena
Which two spinal curvatures are obvious at birth
Thoracic and Sacral
What are the secondary curvatures and under what conditions do they develop?
Cervical - When the baby begins holding its head own its own
Lumbar- When the baby begins walking
A Sharp slender process (On a vertebra)
Spine
A Small rounded projection (On a vertebra)
A Tuberal
A narrow ridge of bone
A Crest
A Large rounded projection
Tuberosity
The Structure supported on the neck
The Head
An Arm like projection
Ramus
Rounded Articular Projection
Condyle
A narrow opening
Fissure
Meatis
A canal like structure
A round or oval opening through bone
Foramen
A shallow depression
Fossa
Air Filled Cavity
Sinus
Large Irregularly shaped projection
Trochanter
Raised area above a condyle
Epicondyle
A projection or prominence
Process
A smooth, nearly flat articular surface
Facet
What are the four classifications of bone?
Long, Short, Flat, or Irregular
Which bone type has the least amount of spongy bone?
Long bone
This part of long bone contains spongy bone in adults
epiphysis
The Diaphysis is made up of what kind of bone?
Compact Bone
Fat in adult bone is stored how?
As yellow marrow
Scientific term for bone shaft
Diaphysis
The site of blood cell formation
The red marrow cavity located in the spongy bone of long bones
Major submembranous site of osteoclasts
Compact Bone
Major submenbranous site of osteoblasts
Periosteum
The Periosteum is composed of:
Connective tissue
Growth plate remnant
Epiphyseal Line
Layers of boney matrix around a central canal
Concentric lamellae
Site of Osteocytes (where they live)
Lacunae
Longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves
Central Canal
Minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon
Canaliculi
Inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance in bone is called the osseous____
Matrix
What is the function of the organic matrix in bone?
This is where blood cells are made
Name the organic bone components
Osteocytes, collagen fibers and Ground Substance
Why are calcium salts stored in bone?
To strengthen bone and to store calcium for body consumption.
Bone is broken down by what kind of cell?
Osteoclasts
Cartilage-forming cells secrete new matrix against the external face of the existing cartilage tissue during what kind of growth?
Appositional Growth
Fossa Are?
Bone Depressions
Bones serve as a reservoir for
Calcium
Yellow Marrow can revert to red marrow if red blood cells are needed. (True or False)
True
Compact bone contains osteons (True or False)
True
Most bones below the base of the skull form by
endochondral ossification
At the end of secondary ossification, hyaline cartilage can be found where in long bones?
at the epiphyseal plates
In adolescence, the "growth spurt" that is observed is mainly attributed to an increase in:
Androgens.
When Calcium concentration in the blood becomes lower than normal:
A decrease in Ca2+ concentration in the blood is detected by the body; in response, PTH (parathyroid hormone) is released. The release of PTH activates osteoclasts. Osteoclasts then resorb bone, releasing Ca2+ to restore calcium homeostasis.
The final step in fracture repair is:
bone remodeling.
What are Caniculi
a tunnel or passage way through bone
Rickets can be caused by:
a deficiency of vitamin D.
The adult form of rickets is called
Osteomalicia
What are the three primary mineral salts stored in bone?
Potassium, Sodium, and Calcium
What happens when there is an abundance of calcium in the blood?
The thyroid gland lowers the secretion of PTH and increases the secretion of calsitonin, which inhibits the the osteoclasts from breaking down bone while simultaneously signaling the osteoblasts to deposit calcium salts into bone