50 terms

WH Chpt 20

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Name the next three Presidents after Mckinley?- How did it start?
William McKinley (1897)

then

Theodore Roosevelt (1901)
William Howard Taft (1909)
Woodrow Wilson (1913)
Warren G. Harding (1921)
Calvin Coolidge (1923)
The Progressives
- What is it?
- How did it start?
- Also known as?
- Who was the typical Progressive?
- What were their goals?
- An Independent third party
- Formed when Theodore Roosevelt wanted to be President Again BUT the Republicans chose Taft as their candidate so he formed his own party.
- Bull Moose Party
- Mostly middle-class, city-dwellers, women

- "Direct, purposeful human intervention in social and economic affairs." (p. 569)
- eliminating corruption in government
- regulate monopolies/trust through antitrust laws (to promote fair competition for the benefit of consumers)
- Social reforms (education, medicine, finance, insurance, industry, railroads, churches)
Muckrakers
- What?
- Name 4 Famous Muckrakers and who they exposed?
- Journalists who attempted to expose evils of industry and corruption

Ida Tarbell: published devastating writings about Standard Oil Company

Lincoln Steffens: The Shame of the Cities - corruption of municipal (city) government

Upton Sinclair: The Jungle (Meat Inspection Act) (allowed Fed govt to inspect meat)

David G. Phillips: "The Treason of the Senate" (Corruption in the US Senate)
Social Gospel
- What?
- Goal?
- How?
- Powerful Protestant religious movement
- goal was to improve cities
- Emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation
Jacob Riis
Who what How??????
- Famous Muckraker (Photographer)
- Wrote How "The Other Half Lives"
- Exposed terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s
- Used photography to that showed poor, immigrant living conditions
Settlement Houses
Helped poor women, immigrants, and children adjust to American life
Most famous settlement house?
- Who What Where?
- Significance?
- Jane Addams - Hull House - Chicago
- Helped inspire the social work profession
Which professions were reformed during the Progressive Era?
American Medical Association (AMA) - Championed Public Health and education

States established bar associations (Law)

National Farm Bureau Federation - lobbied for farmers, scientific farming techniques, and teach better ways to farm
What was the working role of women during the Progressive Era?
- Women were excluded from most professions
- Worked mainly in: Settlement houses, teaching, and social work
What were the three social reform movements led by single women?
Temperance
Settlement houses
Suffrage
Women's clubs
- What?
- What did it exemplify (show) about women?
- Legislation passed?
- Clubs which in which women met to talk about social issues and current events.
- Exemplified the independence movement of women in the progressive era, as well as their increasing societal involvement.
- Helped pass state and federal child labor laws, as well as "dry" laws (no alcohol)
What does "separate spheres" mean?
How was this concept used?
- idea that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics

The suffrage movement gained momentum when suffragists argued "separate spheres" would not be changed if women got the right to vote.
Suffrage
- Which region of the country got suffrage first?
- What other movement supported suffrage and why?
- When and how did women get right to vote?
- The West
- Temperance movement favored suffrage in order for women to vote on alcohol laws
- Women did not get the right to vote until 1920 whichis the end of the Progressive Era (19th amendment)
Alice Paul
Who what???
- Advocated women's suffrage and campaigned for Equal Rights for Women
- Author of the Equal Rights Amendment to constitution (Never Passed)
Name three Key voting reforms at the state level during the Progressive Era and describe them?
IRR

Initiative: voters could propose legislation

Referendum: final approval of laws would be approved by voters

Recall: voters could remove elected officials
Secret Australian Ballot
- Why "Australian"?
- What did it mean?
- Who opposed it? Why?
- First used in Australia in the 1880s.
- No one would see who a voter would vote for
- It was opposed by the party machines, who wanted to be able to pressure people into voting for their candidates.
17th amendment
What?
Significance?
- allowed for the voters in each state to elect their US senators directly. Previously, senators had been chosen by state legislatures.
- Progressive reform to expand democracy (power to the people)
During the Progressive Era how did Progressives seek to reform cities?
Went after saloons, brothels, political machines
Robert La Follette
Who?
What?
- Progressive Wisconsin governor
- Instituted several legislative reforms known as the Wisconsin Experiment
Wisconsin Experiment

- Name most important things in it? (4)
- Direct Primaries versus State Legislatures would nominate US Senators
- Income taxes on inheritances (When you die there is a tax on what you have before you pass it on)
- Initiatives and referendums
- Regulated railroads and industries
By how much did voter turnout decline between 1900 and 1912?
Why did it?
- 1900 - 73% voter turnout, 1912 - 59%
- Party bosses were less influential (Australian Ballot)
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
(1911) 146 women young girls, and immigrants who were killed while locked into the burning building in NYC (brought attention to poor working conditions)
How did Progressive Movement affect African Americans?
African American equality was mostly left out of Progressive goals
W.E.B. Du Bois
Who?
How?
How not?
- African American leader who felt that full rights should immediately be given AA
- Unlike Booker T. Washington, Du Bois did not favor accommodation
Talented Tenth
Who?
Significance?
- According to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks

- W.E.B. DuBois said that these 10% of African Americans should have full access to education immediately
Niagara Movement
What?
Where?
Stood for?
What did it become?
- A group of young AA activist led by W.E.B. Du Bois
- Met at at Niagara Falls in Canada in 1905
- Demanded Black equality
- Morphed into the NAACP (National Association of Colored People) Challenge many racial laws throughout the 20th century
Ida B. Wells
AA Journalist that was outspoken against and brought awareness to lynching in the south
What were the 'Reasons" behind the Temperance Movement?
Group that formed?
Prohibition Amendment?
Drunkenness, spousal abuse, industrial inefficiency
Gained prominence prior and during WWI (Germans)

Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

1919 - 18th amendment
Eugenics Movement
Sterilization of certain individuals
Mentally retarded, criminals, etc.
Socialism
- What is it?
- Why was it appealing?
- Who led the movement?
- What party formed as a result of this movement?
- How did the party do in the 1912 election?
- What hurt the popularity of the Party?
- A theory that government, owns and controls the means of production.
- Many asked why so many working Americans should have so little while a few owners grew incredibly wealthy.
- Eugene V. Debs (person not a court case)
- Socialist Party of America
- Eugene V. Debs ran for president and received almost 1,000,000 presidential votes in 1912
- Most socialists did not support WWI - hurt their cause
International Workers of the World
- What is it?
- Also know as:
- What was there political philosophy?
- Why did it decline?
- A powerful Union that formed in Chicago
- IWW or the "Wobblies," "I won't work"
- Followed socialist ideas based off of Karl Marx writings.
- Hurt by striking during WWI (the government charged IWW leaders with violation of the espionage law for their anti-war expressions, )
How did Teddy Roosevelt approach regulating Trust?
He advocated the distinction between "good and bad" trusts

(If a trust controlled an entire industry but provided good service at reasonable rates, it was a "good" trust to be left alone. Only the "bad" trusts that jacked up rates and exploited consumers would come under attack)
What offices did Teddy Roosevelt hold?
- Governor of NY => VP of Mckinley => President (after Mckinley assassination)
Square deal
What?
Components (3)?
- Name for the Progressive concepts of Roosevelt

- Focused on conservation, controlling corporations, and consumer protection

"The 3 Cs"
- Control of corporations (Anti-trust cases => all corporations must serve the general public good)
- Consumer protection (eg: pure drug act and meat protection act)
- Conservation of natural resources (Laws that established parks, protected wildlife etc)
Sherman Antitrust Act
What?
Landmark use of it?
Control of corporations (Square Deal)

- First federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies (Used to break up "Bad Trust")
- Used to break up the Northern Securities Company
Upheld by the Supreme Court
Northern Securities Company
Control of corporations (Square Deal)

Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.
Anthracite Coal Mine of PA
- Give the story
- What was significant about this?
Control of corporations (Square Deal)

- (Pennsylvania) miners demanded 20% increase in pay and reduction of the working day from 10 to 9 hours; owners refused to negotiate because they were confident that the public would react against the miners; Roosevelt threatened to seize control of mines; owners agreed to 10% pay boost and 9 hour work day

- When owners refused to Negotiate, Roosevelt threatened to take over the mines. This was a change where the Govt sided with the Unions instead of the Owners. Remember before, Virtually all other presidents sided AGAINST unions in strikes.
Hepburn Act
What?
Who did it benefit the most?
Control of corporations (Square Deal)

- allowed ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) to regulate shipping prices of railroads (no more freebies for Senators)

- pro farmer as railroads were always discriminating against them in terms of price
Pure Food and Drug Act
What?
Consumer protection (Square Deal)

- Created Food and Drug Administration
- Required proper labels and restricted sale of certain medicines
- Also Passed Meat Inspection Act (remember the book "The Jungle")

(Known today as the FDA or Food and Drug Administration)
What was Roosevelt's most enduring achievement?
Name two laws in support of this?
Conservation of natural resources (Square Deal)

- Reserving, or conserving land. Think environmentalism!

1) Forest Reserve Act: President can set aside forests and parks
2) Newlands Act of 1902: D.C. could use money from sale of land for irrigation projects
Panic of 1907
- Known as?
- Significance?
- "Roosevelt Recession"
- Some people blamed the recession on Roosevelt for going after Big business.

(Picture is a cartoon showing TR the bear attacking Wallstreet or big business)
Tennessee Coal and Iron Company
Who What????
- US Steel bought this Company (created monopoly) with Theodore Roosevelt's approval

- Later targeted by Taft and broken up
Howard Taft
- Party?
- Who chose Taft to run as the next Republican?
- Why did he pick him?
- Where was he from?
- Past Office held?
- Office held after Presidency?
- Physical Appearance and funny quote?
- What politically was he known for?
- Republican
- TR handpicks William Howard Taft when TR decided not to run for reelection
- He expected him to follow his policies as his handpicked successor
- From CINCINNATI!!!
- Former governor of Philippines
- Became 10th SC Chief Justice after presidency
- Largest president ever (over 300 LBS!) => Taft one day sent a message that read "Went on a horse ride today; feeling good." Secretary of War Root replied, "How's the horse?"
- Busted more trusts than TR
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
- What?
- Why was it controversial?
- Why do you think Taft signed it?
- A law that ended up increasing taxes
- It was initially an attempt at tariff reform by lowering tariff that ends up getting so many amendments tacked on that it increases the tariff (made many Progressives angry)
- Republican R= Raise
Why did TR get so angry with Taft?
What did TR do in response?
Discuss who ran in the presidential election of 1912?
Why did the winner win?
- Taft fired Gifford Pinchot - TR's buddy and head of Forest Service
- He decides to run for another term as President


41.8% Woodrow Wilson (Democratic)
27.4% Theodore Roosevelt - Progressive (Bull Moose Party)
23.2% William H. Taft (Republican)

- Wilson won because when the Republicans did not give Roosevelt the republican nomination he created a 3rd party (The Progressives) and split the Republican vote letting Wilson get the win.
New Nationalism
- What?
- What policies did it support?
- Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice

- Favored individual taxes, worker's compensation, tariff (import tax) reduction, etc.
The Bull Moose Party
- How did it start?
- What policy were they pushing?
- this party started when Progressive Republicans got upset over the fact that William Howard Taft controlled the Republican Party leadership. Since the Progressives were so unhappy, they set up a new party and chose Teddy Roosevelt as their leader who strongly accepted the honor.

- Advocated women's suffrage
Woodrow Wilson
- Party?
- Tariffs under Wilson? The Act?
- What passed at the same time? What did it do?
- Democrat
- He decreased the tariff rates (Democrat = Decrease)
- Underwood Tariff
- 16th amendment: Graduated income tax (1st time a persons income was taxed)
Federal Reserve Act
..., a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply

(Note: the money supply is all the money available in the United States economy, government changes the money supply to control interest rates and inflation )
Clayton Antitrust Act
- What was it?
- What is an interlocking directory and how did it effect these?
- What impact did this law have on Unions?
- law that strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act

- Made interlocking directories illegal (same individuals serve as directors on boards of competing firms)

- Made labor unions and agricultural organizations exempt from antitrust prosecution (Unlike Sherman Antitrust Act which was used AGAINST unions)
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