Biology Chapter 17

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Terms in this set (...)

Levels of Classification
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species
Six Kingdoms
Kingdom Eubacteria, Kingdom Archaebacteria, Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, and Kingdom Animalia
biodiversity
the variety of organism considered at all levels, from populations to ecosystems
taxonomy
the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
taxon
an particular group within taxonomic system
kingdom
the highest taxonomic category, which contains a group of similar phyla
domain
categories above the kingdom level
phylum
subsets below the kingdom
division
in traditional taxonomic system for plants, the category contained within a kingdom and containing classes
class
the category contained within a phylum or division and containing orders
order
the category contained within a class and containing families
family
the category contained within an order and containing genera
genus
the category contained within a family and containing species
species
a group of organisms that are closely related and can mate to produce fertile offspring; also the level of classification below genus and above subspecies
binomial nomenclature
a system for giving each organism a two-word scientific name that consists of the genus name followed by the species name
bacteria
a domain made up of prokaryotes that usually have a cell wall and that usually reproduce by cell division
archaea
a domain made up of prokaryotes that can live in extreme environments
eukarya
a domain made up of all eukaryotes
eubacteria
a kingdom that contains all prokaryotes except kingdom archaebacteria
archaebacteria
a kingdom made up of prokaryotes that can live in extreme environments
protista
a kingdom made up of mostly one-celled eukaryotic organisms that are not readily classified as either plants, animals, or fungi
fungi
a kingdom made up of non green, eukaryotic organisms that get food by breaking down organic matter and absorbing the nutrients, reproduce by means of spores, and have no means of movement
plantae
a kingdom made up of eukaryotic, multicellular organisms that have cell walls made up mostly of cellulose, that have pigments that absorb light, and that supply energy and oxygen to themselves and to other life-forms through photosynthesis
animalia
a kingdom made up of complex multicellular organisms that lack cell walls, are usually able to move around, and possess specialized sense organs that help them quickly respond to their environment
Aristotle classified animals on the basis of
where they lived
The main criterion used in Linnaeus's system of classification is an organism's
morphology
Each subset within a class of organism is call a(n)
order
How were the classification systems of Aristotle and Linnaeus similar?
Aristotle classified animals according to their location, and plants according to their stems. Linnaeus classified organisms according to their form and structure using a seven level system.
The word part bi- means "two," and the word part nomen means "name." Explain how these two word parts relate to the system scientists use to identify organisms
Genus name followed by the species identity
Linnaeus only classified organisms through the appearance(morphology) modern taxonomists classify organisms through the DNA
How does the classification process used by modern taxonomists differ from that used by Linnaeus?
The organisms that live in hostile environments that cannot support other forms of life are members of the domain
archaea
Amoebas and paramecia belong to the kingdom
protista
In the scientific name of an organism, the first part is the
genus
The species name of the pangolin is
Manis temminckii (in italics)
Mushrooms, puffballs, mildews, and some molds belong to the kingdom
fungi
bacteria
The domain that includes the oldest known fossil cells is called
The domain Eukarya includes
protists, fungi, plants, and animals
Archaea can live in extreme environments, bacteria can not
What characteristics distinguish archaea from bacteria?
What characteristics distinguish fungi from plants?
Fungi is heterotrophic and plants are autotrophic. Fungi is both multicellular and unicellular while plants are just multicellular
animalia, plantae, fungi, and protista
Which kingdoms include multicellular heterotrophic organisms?
By comparing sequences of ribosomal RNA in different organisms, it helps estimate how long ago pairs of different organisms shared a common ancestor
What evidence led scientists to develop the three-domain system of classification?
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