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48 terms

Spinal Cord and Brain Stem

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Foramen Magnum
Where the spinal cord begins
2nd Lumbar Vertebra
Where the spinal cord ends
# of Pairs of Spinal Nerves
31: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccyx
True Spinal Nerve
a short segment that extends from the joining of the anterior and posterior roots and the point where the dorsal primary ramus comes off the spinal nerve
Afferent nerves
Enter the spinal cord via the posterior horn
Efferent nerves
Leave the spinal cord via anterior horn
Conus Medullaris
taper end of the spinal cord
Filum Terminale
pia mater extending from the conus medullaris that attaches to the sacrum to help hold spinal cord in place
Goal of Anatomical Position
to recreate the embryological pattern
White matter of Spinal Cord organization
3 funiculi, within the funiculi are fasciculi
3 Funiculi of Spinal Cord
lateral, posterior, anterior
Fasciculi
fiber tract bundles within funiculi; ascending and descending
Cuneate Fasciculus
fibers from above T10
Gracile Fasciculus
fibers from LE; concious touch
Anterior White Commissure
crossing of fibers, important for pain and light touch
Contains less white matter
Lumbar, because not as much going on
Brainstem components
medulla, pons, midbrain
Peduncles
fiber tracts that connect one anatomical structure to another; connects cerebellum to brainstem
Decussation of Pyramids
why L side of brain controls R side of body and Rside of brain controls L side of body
Cranial Nerves
Oh Oh Oh To Touch And Feel Very Good Virgins Are Hot (12)
Olfactory Nerve
(I) arises from olfactory bulb; only functions in special sense of smell
Optic Nerve
(II) arises from optic tract; special sense for vision
Oculomotor Nerve
(III) arises from the midbrain; extraocculomotor muscles except those innervated by trochlear and abducens
Trochlear Nerve
(IV) arises from the midbrain; innervates superior oblique of the eye; *trochlear sling
Trigeminal Nerve
(V) arises from the pons; 3 parts: opthalamic, maxillary, mandibular; sensation for face and tongue; motor component in mandible for muscles of mastication
Abducens Nerve
(VI) arises from the pons/medulla junction; abductor of the eye
Facial Nerve
(VII) arises from the medulla; mainly involved with facial expression; parasympathetic-secretes saliva(submandib&mandib) and tears(lacrimal gland)
Vestibulocochlear Nerve
(VII) arises from the medulla; 2 special senses of hearing and balance
Glossopharyngeal Nerve
(IX) arises from medulla; skeletal muscle for palat-swallowing; taste for back of tongue
Vagus Nerve
(X) arises from medulla; the wandering nerve; parasympatheticheart, lungs, gut, skeletal contraction of vocal cords; sensorystomach, gut, heart
Accessory Nerve
(XI) arises from the medulla; "spinal nerve" innervates sternocleidomastoid and traps
Hypoglossal Nerve
(XII) arises from the medulla; not sensory, only goes to muscles of tongue
Decussations
crossing of fiber tracts occuring at all levels of brain and spinal cord
Spinothalamic tracts
crossing in the spinal cord
Crossing in the brainstem
corticospinal, medial leminiscus(medulla), dentothalamic(cerebellum)
Ipsilateral
deficit on same side of damage
Contralateral
deficit on opposite side of damage
Posterior Lobe of Cerebellum
responsible for fine movements of the body
Anterior Lobe of Cerebellum
responsible for body tone and posture
Focculo-Nodular Lobe
responsible for balance
Superior Colliculus
vision
Inferior Colliculus
hearing; where cochlear nerve info gets into the brain
PAG
responsible for being awake, being asleep
Crus Cerebri
contains mainly descending pathways
Substantia Nigra
pretty much gone with Parkinsons
Posterior Column-Medial Lemniscal (PCML)
fibers cross in the medulla; allows cerebellum to make decisions
Corticospinal Tract (CST)
descending pathway
Infundibulum
stock of pituitary gland