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Foramen Magnum

Where the spinal cord begins

2nd Lumbar Vertebra

Where the spinal cord ends

# of Pairs of Spinal Nerves

31: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccyx

True Spinal Nerve

a short segment that extends from the joining of the anterior and posterior roots and the point where the dorsal primary ramus comes off the spinal nerve

Afferent nerves

Enter the spinal cord via the posterior horn

Efferent nerves

Leave the spinal cord via anterior horn

Conus Medullaris

taper end of the spinal cord

Filum Terminale

pia mater extending from the conus medullaris that attaches to the sacrum to help hold spinal cord in place

Goal of Anatomical Position

to recreate the embryological pattern

White matter of Spinal Cord organization

3 funiculi, within the funiculi are fasciculi

3 Funiculi of Spinal Cord

lateral, posterior, anterior


fiber tract bundles within funiculi; ascending and descending

Cuneate Fasciculus

fibers from above T10

Gracile Fasciculus

fibers from LE; concious touch

Anterior White Commissure

crossing of fibers, important for pain and light touch

Contains less white matter

Lumbar, because not as much going on

Brainstem components

medulla, pons, midbrain


fiber tracts that connect one anatomical structure to another; connects cerebellum to brainstem

Decussation of Pyramids

why L side of brain controls R side of body and Rside of brain controls L side of body

Cranial Nerves

Oh Oh Oh To Touch And Feel Very Good Virgins Are Hot (12)

Olfactory Nerve

(I) arises from olfactory bulb; only functions in special sense of smell

Optic Nerve

(II) arises from optic tract; special sense for vision

Oculomotor Nerve

(III) arises from the midbrain; extraocculomotor muscles except those innervated by trochlear and abducens

Trochlear Nerve

(IV) arises from the midbrain; innervates superior oblique of the eye; *trochlear sling

Trigeminal Nerve

(V) arises from the pons; 3 parts: opthalamic, maxillary, mandibular; sensation for face and tongue; motor component in mandible for muscles of mastication

Abducens Nerve

(VI) arises from the pons/medulla junction; abductor of the eye

Facial Nerve

(VII) arises from the medulla; mainly involved with facial expression; parasympathetic-secretes saliva(submandib&mandib) and tears(lacrimal gland)

Vestibulocochlear Nerve

(VII) arises from the medulla; 2 special senses of hearing and balance

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

(IX) arises from medulla; skeletal muscle for palat-swallowing; taste for back of tongue

Vagus Nerve

(X) arises from medulla; the wandering nerve; parasympatheticheart, lungs, gut, skeletal contraction of vocal cords; sensorystomach, gut, heart

Accessory Nerve

(XI) arises from the medulla; "spinal nerve" innervates sternocleidomastoid and traps

Hypoglossal Nerve

(XII) arises from the medulla; not sensory, only goes to muscles of tongue


crossing of fiber tracts occuring at all levels of brain and spinal cord

Spinothalamic tracts

crossing in the spinal cord

Crossing in the brainstem

corticospinal, medial leminiscus(medulla), dentothalamic(cerebellum)


deficit on same side of damage


deficit on opposite side of damage

Posterior Lobe of Cerebellum

responsible for fine movements of the body

Anterior Lobe of Cerebellum

responsible for body tone and posture

Focculo-Nodular Lobe

responsible for balance

Superior Colliculus


Inferior Colliculus

hearing; where cochlear nerve info gets into the brain


responsible for being awake, being asleep

Crus Cerebri

contains mainly descending pathways

Substantia Nigra

pretty much gone with Parkinsons

Posterior Column-Medial Lemniscal (PCML)

fibers cross in the medulla; allows cerebellum to make decisions

Corticospinal Tract (CST)

descending pathway


stock of pituitary gland

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