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88 terms

MICROBIOLOGY

STUDY
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The idea od spontaneous generation postulated that
living organisms could spontaneously arise from non-living material.
Cellulose is a major component of plants and is only directly digested by
microorganisms
Bioremediation refers to
using bacteria to clean up pollutants.
Lyme Disease is an example of a disease
that is due to mutation
Bacteria
multiply by binary fission, do not comntain a true nucleous, prokaryotic, rigid cell wall, single cell, peptidoglycan
What is not usually true of Archaea?
Reproduce by binary fission
The cell types which lack membrane bound nucleus are found in the
prokaryotes and archaea
The system by which organisms are named is referred to as
nomenclature
The scientific name of an organism includes its
Genus and Species
Viroids
naked pieces of RNA.
Outside a cell, viruses are
inactive
Viruses, Viroids, and prions all
operate intracellularly, considered acellular agents of disease.
Although it is said that the 20th century was the Age of Physics, it is predicted that the twenty-first century will be the age of
Microbial biodiversity
Prokaryotes abd Eukaryotes
may use flagella to move
Eukaryotes
membrane bound organelles, nuclear membrane, cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton, rigid cell wall, peptidoglycan
Prokaryotes
The human body only contains bacteria during illness
False
Virues simultaneously contain DNA, RNA, protein
Flase
Positively charged component of the atom is the
Proton
The part of the atom that is most invloved in chemical reactivity is the
Electron
Electrons are found in
orbitals
Sharing of electrions forms a
strong covalent bond.
Atoms that gain electrons are
negatively charged.
Which bond is weak individually but strong as a group
Ionic and hydrogen
pH
a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration.
The subunits of proteins are
amino acids
How many different amino acids are there to choose from when assembling a protein
20
Amino Acids in proteins are linked to one another by peptide bonds between the
carboxyl group of one amino acid and amino group of another.
The most important feature of a protein is
shape
The helixes and sheets of amino acids form a proteins
secondary structure
A protein
may need help to assume correct shape.
Protein denaturation can
occur due to certain chemicals, pH change, high temperatures, cause protein to no longer fxn.
Carbohydrates
may interconvert between ring and linear structures
Dehydration rxn are involved in
formation of peptidoglycan and polysaccarides.
Nucleotides
signaling molecules, part of enzymes, carry chemical energy in bonds, DNA building blocks.
Purines of DNA are
adenine and guanine
Which shows the incorrect complementary base pairing?
G:T
The components of fats are fatty acids and
glycerol
Eukaryotic cells are
defined by the presence of a membrane bound nucleus.
The two mgnifying lenses found in a light microscope are the
ocular and objective.
In viewing a microscopic specimen, oil is used to
decrease the refraction and increase the resolution.
The gram stain and the endospore stain both use
basic dyes and safranin
Which may result in Gram + bacteria appearing to be Gram - ?
Decolorizing too long and using old cultures.
The major criteria used in placing bacterua into different groups is based on differences in
cell wall structure.
Immunofluorescence
uses fluorescently tagged molecules, makes use of the specificity in binding of antibodies, requires a UV microscope.
Which term refers to bacterial morphology
coccus and bacillus
Which is true of simple diffusion of water?
H20 enters cell, produces osmotic pressure, relies on selectively permeable nature of cell membrane.
Facilitated diffusion and active transport
transport molecules into or out of a cell.
Which is true concerning the cell wall prokaryotes?
determines the shape, prevents from bursting, contains peptidoglycan, targeted by antimicrobials.
Which molecules are associated with the cell wall of Gram +?
Peptidoglycan, D-form amino acid, teichoic acids.
Penicillin would be most effective against
growing bacteria, Gram + Bacteria
The structures used for motility in both eukaryoties and prokaryotes are
flagella
Extrachromasomal DNA is found in
Mitochondira and plasmids
Endospores are
dormant cell type
Phagocytosis
ingestion of particles, performed by animal cells.
Which is not true of mitochondria and chloroplasts
the are found in all organisms.
All the bacterial cells that result from the replication of a single organism are said to be a
population
The scientist that contributed most to the development of pure culture techniques was
Robert Koch
The solidifying agent used most successfully in bacterial nutrient media is
Agar
The simplest technique for isolationg bacteria in growth media is referred to as the
streak plate method
Bacteria may be stored
slant in refrigerator, frozen in glycerol solution, lyophilized.
In the growth curve of a bacteria population, the bacteria are rapidly increasing in number in the
exponential pahse.
Late log phase of the bacterial growth curve
is marked by the production of secondary metabolites.
generally the proteins of thermophiles
resist denaturation
Organisms that require gaseous oxygen for metabolism are referred to as
obligate anaerobes.
High concentrations of salt and sugar in foods
useful in preserving foods, draw H20 out of a cell.
Growth factors are
compounds that must br provided to the organism.
Organisms may derive energy from
sunlight and metabloizing chemical compounds
A medium that enhances the growth of one perticular organism in a mixed population is termed
selective medium
The process of killing or removing all the microorganisms in or on a material is termed
sterilization
Pasterization
is the use of heat to reduce pathogenic/spoilage bacteria to a safe level.
Plain soap is very effective in controlling spread of microorganisms because it is
effective at the mechanical removal of microorganisms.
To reduce or eliminate disease/spoilage causing organisms, food is often subjected to
heat, chemical additives, radiation, cold.
Upon treatment with heat or chemicals, bacteria will
die at constant proportion, D-value
Boiling is not reliable for sterilization because
heat resistant endospores are unaffected.
Typical conditions used for sterilizations are
temperature, psi, and length.
Which of the following is not a sterilization method?
pasteurization
Oxidation of proteins is achieved most readily
in a hot air oven.
Liquid media containing heat-sensitive components would best be sterilized by
membrane filtration
Ultraviolet radiation at the bactericidal wavelength destroy bacteria by
damaging nucleic acid
Alcohols are not reliably effective at destroying
naked viruses and endospores
Ethylene oxide is gas that
useful in sterilizing heat or moisture sensitive items, potentially carcinogenic.
Which is true of iodine?
Does not readily kill endospores, used as an antiseptic, found as tinctures or iodophors.
Use of heat to eliminate pathogens/spoilage organisms
pasteurization
removal of all life
sterilization
for use of skin
antiseptic
elimination of most pathogens on a material
disinfection
reduction of microorganisms to meet health standards
sanitization