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41 terms

Psych ch 2

we can see what evidence would count against it, makes clear, easily tested predictions
process of inferring a general principle from observations
explanation that fits many observations and predictions
Replicable results
those that anyone can obtain by following the same procudures
combines the results of many studies and analyzes them as though they were all one very large study
stick with ideas that work EX. preference of scientists for the theory that makes the fewest unfamiliar or untested assumptions
Extrasensory perception
long been controversial in psychology
Operational definition
specifies the operations used to produce or measure something
Random sample
every individual in the population has an equeal chance of being selected
Representative sample
percentage of males and females, blacks and whites, young and old
Convenience sample
participants who volunteer for an experiment would most likely be this group
Experimenter bias
distort or mispercieve the results of an experiments based on an expected outcome
Blind observer
someone who can record data with out knowing what the researcher has predicted
Single-blind study
either the observer or the participants are unaware of which participants recieved
Double-blind study
both the observer and the participants are unaware
Naturalistic Observation
carefu examination of what happens under more or less natural conditions
demand characteristics
tell a participant what is expected of him or her
Case history
a thorough description of the person
study of a prevalence of certain beliefs
measure of a relationship between two variables
Correlation study
procedure in which investigators measure the correlation between two variables
Correlation Coefficient
a mathematical estimate of the relationship between two variables
Illusory Correlation
an apparent relationship based on casual observations of unrelated events
Independent Variable
item that an experimenter changes or controls
dependent variable
item that an experimenter measure to determine how it was affected
Control group
set of individuals treated in the same way as the experimental group
Random assignment
experimenter uses a chance procedure such as drawing names in a hat
Cross-cultural Study
facial expressions have the same meaning for various people through out the world
Internal Review Board
place to get a study approved for humans & animals
Animal Research
clear purpose, least amount of suffering, humane treatment, aquire animals legally
Human Researvh
voluntary, informed consent, must debrief, no risk, anonymity
Inferental Statistics
purpose is to discover whether the finding can be applied to the larger population EX. .5% most likely the results are due to change
Central Tendency
Mean, Median & Mode -> results should all be the same to have a normal distribution
Standard Deviation
various scores, center=mean
Z Scores
unit that measures the distance of 1 score from the mean
negative= below mean: positive= above the mean
Hawthorne Effect
even the control group may experience changes. people act differently if they know they are in an experiment
Correlation Method
doesn't prove causation, expresses a relationship btwn 2 variables
Relevant Variables
test conditions, experimenter, behavior, timing
Confounding Variables
object of an experiment is to prove that A causes B
Correlation Coefficient
number that measures strenght of a relationship between 2 variables. between -1 & +1: relationship gets weaker the closest it is to zero