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we can see what evidence would count against it, makes clear, easily tested predictions


process of inferring a general principle from observations


explanation that fits many observations and predictions

Replicable results

those that anyone can obtain by following the same procudures


combines the results of many studies and analyzes them as though they were all one very large study


stick with ideas that work EX. preference of scientists for the theory that makes the fewest unfamiliar or untested assumptions

Extrasensory perception

long been controversial in psychology

Operational definition

specifies the operations used to produce or measure something

Random sample

every individual in the population has an equeal chance of being selected

Representative sample

percentage of males and females, blacks and whites, young and old

Convenience sample

participants who volunteer for an experiment would most likely be this group

Experimenter bias

distort or mispercieve the results of an experiments based on an expected outcome

Blind observer

someone who can record data with out knowing what the researcher has predicted

Single-blind study

either the observer or the participants are unaware of which participants recieved

Double-blind study

both the observer and the participants are unaware

Naturalistic Observation

carefu examination of what happens under more or less natural conditions

demand characteristics

tell a participant what is expected of him or her

Case history

a thorough description of the person


study of a prevalence of certain beliefs


measure of a relationship between two variables

Correlation study

procedure in which investigators measure the correlation between two variables

Correlation Coefficient

a mathematical estimate of the relationship between two variables

Illusory Correlation

an apparent relationship based on casual observations of unrelated events

Independent Variable

item that an experimenter changes or controls

dependent variable

item that an experimenter measure to determine how it was affected

Control group

set of individuals treated in the same way as the experimental group

Random assignment

experimenter uses a chance procedure such as drawing names in a hat

Cross-cultural Study

facial expressions have the same meaning for various people through out the world

Internal Review Board

place to get a study approved for humans & animals

Animal Research

clear purpose, least amount of suffering, humane treatment, aquire animals legally

Human Researvh

voluntary, informed consent, must debrief, no risk, anonymity

Inferental Statistics

purpose is to discover whether the finding can be applied to the larger population EX. .5% most likely the results are due to change

Central Tendency

Mean, Median & Mode -> results should all be the same to have a normal distribution

Standard Deviation

various scores, center=mean

Z Scores

unit that measures the distance of 1 score from the mean


negative= below mean: positive= above the mean

Hawthorne Effect

even the control group may experience changes. people act differently if they know they are in an experiment

Correlation Method

doesn't prove causation, expresses a relationship btwn 2 variables

Relevant Variables

test conditions, experimenter, behavior, timing

Confounding Variables

object of an experiment is to prove that A causes B

Correlation Coefficient

number that measures strenght of a relationship between 2 variables. between -1 & +1: relationship gets weaker the closest it is to zero

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