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15 terms

Science - Chapter 4 - Cell Division And Mitosis

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Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Chromosome
a structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material
Asexual Reproduction
a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent
Sexual Reproduction
a type of reproduction in which two sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, join to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity.
Sperm
haploid sex cells formed in the male reproductive organs
Egg
haploid sex cell formed in the female reproductive organs
Fertilization
in sexual reproduction, the joining of a sperm and egg
Zygote
New diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg; will divide by mitosis and develop into a new organism.
Diploid
cell whose similar chromosomes occur in pairs
Haploid
cell that has half the number of chromosomes as body cells
Meiosis
reproductive process that produces four haploid sex cells from one diploid cell and ensures offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent organisms.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid. Double-stranded nucleic acid twisted into a helical shape; its base sequence encodes the primary hereditary information for all living organisms and many viruses.
Gene
section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins
RNA
ribonucleic acid; a type of nucleic acid that carries codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes
Mutation
any permanent change in a gene or chromosome of a cell; may be beneficial, harmful, or have little effect on an organism.