- Monarchy: Government is headed by one person, such as a king or a queen, who exercises supreme authority. (Power is inherited)
-Constitutional Monarchy: Real power lies in another part of government, such as a legislative body. Power is limited by law. May co-exist with other forms of government.
- Dictatorship: System of rule in which one person, a dictator, or a small group of people can hold unlimited power over government. Absolute authority. Violence used to maintain rule
-Totalitarian Regimes: These governments seek to dominate all aspects of society. Dictator holds ultimate authority. Government controls all aspects of life (political, social, economic)
- Oligarchy/ Aristocracy: Small group of powerful people make most government decisions. Power based on wealth, family, or military power.
-Theocracy: Governments under the rule of a small group of religious leaders. Laws rooted in religious doctrine. Rulers claim to be directed by set of religious idea.
-Direct Democracy: Government by the people. citizens meet regularly in a assembly to discuss issues and vote for leaders. Majority rule.
-Republic/ Representative Democracy: An indirect form of democracy that places political decision making at least one step away from the people. In a republic, the people elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf. People are ultimate source of government authority
Expressed powers (enumerated powers) are powers given to Congress specifically stated and given in the constitution. For example, Congress has the power to issue money, collect taxes, regulate trade, and declare war. Reserved powers are powers that are not specifically granted to the federal government nor denied to the states and therefore, are reserved for the states. For example, states alone have the powers to regulate marriage, control public school systems, and enforce criminal laws. Concurrent powers are powers shared by the state and federal governments. For example, Congress and the states both have the powers to collect taxes, establish courts, enforce laws, and borrow and spend money. 1st EditionDaniel M. Shea Donald A. Ritchie, Richard C. Remy