The English Nation Chapter 15
Terms in this set (100)
Age of Nations
Also known as the modern age
Earliest known inhabitants of the British Isles (descendants of people from the European mainland)
A special group of Celtic men who acted as teachers, judges, and Priest.
Conquered the Celts about 50 years before the birth of Christ-around 55 B.C.
A Celtic hero in imaginary legends
Jutes, Angles, & Saxons who conquered Britain were collectively known as this
Another name for England
Greatest Saxon poem
A missionary appointed by Pope Gregory the Great who also became the first Archbishop of Canterbury
The year 664
All of England officially accepted Romanism
Alfred the Great
First great king of England
He promoted learning
He translated gospels into Anglo-Saxon language
He wrote the Anglo-Saxon chronicle
Canute the Dane
Ruled England, Denmark, & Norway as a great empire. He was a Viking invader.
William the duke of Normandy
Became William the Conqueror because he was determined to be king.
Battle of Hastings
Also known as the Norman Conquest where William the Conqueror had victory. It was in 1066. The Norman Conquest resulted in hundreds of French words becoming a part of the English language.
He was made king of England by the nobles, but William the Conqueror took it from him because William was the one who should have been king
Recorded the results of a census in this book. Now William could be sure of getting all the tax money due him as king
Old assembly of powerful nobles
This replaced the Witan which was the old assembly of nobles
William the Conqueror
His goal was to increase his own power. He also appointed the Archbishop of Canterbury which was the most influential church official in England
Descendant of William the Conqueror who began Plantagenet line of kings.
He added territories of Anjou & Aquitaine.
The common law developed.
He instituted trial by jury.
Richard I or the Lion-Hearted
Most hated king in English history
King Phillip II
Took more than half the English mainland in Europe,including Normandy
A meadow where a group of men met King John & forced him to sign the Magna Carta
Ancient rights of the people were clearly defined
The year 1215
Magna Carta signed
This was the English constitution:
1. No taxation without representation
2. The right to appear before a court if
3. Right to a trial by jury and due
Process of the law
Restrains rulers from violating their subjects' freedoms
King Henry III
Simon de Montfort
Took control of the government when Henry III was king. He called the first meeting of Parliament in 1265
The ideas for this began with Montfort
1. He wanted to unite all of Great
2. He started the "Model Parliament"
Of 1295, a representative
Hundred Years War (1337 to 1453)
Dispute over the French throne
1. At first the French were losing
because the English had longbows
that could shoot very far
2. The English won battles at
3. The French revived itself & won the
war & got back all its land except
4. England's loss was a blessing in disguise because now England could concentrate on development as a nation-state
Joan of Arc
French peasant girl who said she heard heavenly voices that she should lead the French army. She was captured by the English.
Henry the duke of Lancaster
He didn't like King Richard II who was a tyrant. Henry became the king instead & was Henry IV of the Lancastrian dynasty. Henry IV went insane & Richard the duke of York took over.
War of the Roses
Yorks used a white rose for an emblem & the Lancasters used a red rose. It ended in 1485 with the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Battle of Bosworth Field
Henry Tudor(Lancaster) defeated Richard III (York) & Henry VII became first Tudor king. During Henry VII reign Columbus discovered America, Vasco de Gama sailed to the East Indies, & John Cabot claimed North America for England.
Greatest event of the Tudor period
1. They had Tudor absolutism
2. He was called "Defender of the
Faith" because he wrote Defense of
the Seven Sacraments which
attacked Luther's doctrines
3. His wife Catherine of Aragon had
only one child survive (Mary). He
did not warn a girl!!
4. He got rid of Catherine & married
5. Henry broke England's ties with
the church because the pope
would not allow the divorce
6. This sparked the English
John Wycliffe and William of Ockham
Englishmen who were against the
Church of England & had prepared England for the Reformation
One of England's oldest universities
Made English translation of the Bible
An assembly forced by HenryVIII to recognize him as supreme head of the church in 1534
Became accessible to all Englishmen
1. King & pope who had absolute religious & political power & so the people were worse off after he broke with Rome.
2. He had Parliament pass the Six Articles making Roman doctrine the official belief of England.
3. He executed his wife Anne because
she did not have a son.
4. Anne had a daughter Elizabeth
Became king at age 9
Archbishop of Canterbury who was a Protestant
Scholar Nicholas Ridley & preacher Hugh Latimer
Led England in drastic reformation
These replaced the Six Articles & these were Protestant beliefs
Book of Common Prayer
This made worship services much more Protestant
Decided to return England to Romanism
Killed 300 people who refused to obey her rules that everyone should be Roman Catholic. Cranmer, Ridley, & Latimer were burned at the stake.
Book of Maryrs
Written by John Foxe about the people who had died for their beliefs because of Bloody Mary
A virgin queen who never married & was given the nickname "Good Queen Bess". She intervened in the affairs of Scotland because John Knox urged her to for the sake of England & the Scottish Protestants. A treaty caused France to withdraw its troops.
King of Spain who wanted to overthrow Queen Elizabeth & make Mary Queen of Scots(Scotland) the new queen. Her mother & Cardinal Beaton sent her to France hoping that she would marry the French king's oldest son.
Cardinal David Beaton
Wanted to keep the country Catholic
Leader of Scottish Reformation
Got John Knox released after he was captured & Knox continued the Protestant cause
Scottish Presbyterian Church
Set up by Scottish Protestants
Mary's infant son who she was forced to give the throne to her son
He inherited the Netherlands from his father. There were many Protestants in the Netherlands & this caused problems
Duke of Alva
Led the Spanish troops & he set up the Council of Blood because of how brutal he was
William the Silent (Prince of Orange)
Prince of Orange who led Dutch patriots & joined the Dutch Reformed Church. He led the people of the Netherlands to defend themselves against Spain.
United Provinces of the Netherlands or the Dutch Republic
Declared the Netherlands independent of Spain
William of Orange
Known as "father of his country" & was assassinated by a Spanish agent. By 1585 the Dutch hoped that Queen Elizabeth would help them.
He designed English ships to be very fast. Queen Elizabeth hired him. She had already sent troops to the Netherlands to help them because she knew that Spain would probably attack England next! Elizabeth cried when her cousin Mary was executed.
Sir Francis Drake
Attacked & raided Spanish ships
Also known as the Invincible Armada and was perhaps the greatest naval force
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
In 1588 after 10 days of fighting the English defeated the Armada. This was because the Armada missed an opportunity to trap the English fleet at Plymouth harbor.
A time of politics,poetry,drama , & theater. This was because they had secured their independence & their Protestant Reformation by defeating the Spanish Armada.
Greatest playwright world has ever known & wrote 38 plays
Open air theater in London where people watched Shakespeare's plays
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Secured England's independence
James I (Stuart King)
Mary Queen of Scot's son
1. He did not like Parliament
2. He was ignorant of the English laws
& insisted that judges obey him
3. He dismissed Justice Edward Coke,
one of England's greatest lawyers
4. When Parliament refused to give him money he "dissolved" the Parliament.
Episcopal form of church government
Bishop's power had been passed down from the apostles in an unbroken line
Wanted to purify the Church of England & they wanted a Presbyterian
Form of church where the ministers & elders rule
Independents or Separatists
Wanted each local church to be independent & separate from other churches especially the Church of England. One group of Separatists, the Pilgrims, sailed to Holland & then to America.
King James Version of the Bible
Best loved & most widely used translation completed in 1611
First Stuart king of England who wanted to control both religion & the church because he knew that this was the only way that he could keep his divine right. He hated the Puritans!!!
Petition of Right
Reaffirmed the liberties & rights which Englishmen had won in the past
He did not respect the Petition of Right & said that he would rule England without Parliament. This was known as "Eleven a Years of Tyranny"
Those against King Charles I--they wore short hair cut in the shape of a bowl
Those for the king--they wore their hair in long ringlets
English Civil War (Began in 1642)
Cavaliers fought for divine right & said that God wanted Charles to be king. The Roundheads fought for government by consent. In other words, they said a government is only legitimate(lawful) if based upon approval by the people governed
Oliver Cromwell (Puritan leader)
A military genius who led the New Model Army called the Ironsides & the king's forces & the king fled. Cromwell had won the first stage of the English Civil War. Some people who had sided with him in the first stage changed sides in the second stage because they believed in traditional rights of Englishmen & also some were Presbyterian.
"Man of Blood"
King Charles I was called this & many decided he must die. He was declared guilty & beheaded. The people were horrified.
Name given to England's new government set up by Cromwell. It was actually a military dictatorship
England had this government of elected representatives elected by the people. It had been a military dictatorship under Cromwell
Council of State
Had the real power of government & Cromwell was the chairman
Oliver Cromwell was Lord Protector in this new government that dissolved Parliament altogether
Disasters in 17th century London
The Plague & the Great Fire of London
Sir Christopher Wren, an architect,engineered the rebuilding
Came after his father Oliver but quickly fell
Fully restored the monarchy by 1662 after he became king.
Treaty of Dover
Charles II secretly signed this with King Louis XIV of France in order to get money from the French king to carry on his foreign policy. He agreed to get toleration for Roman Catholics & became more & more pro-Catholic. The Whigs opposed him. Charles II died & his son James II became king. Charles tried unsuccessfully to bring Romanism back to England
William of Orange
Grandson of William the Silent who became king after Parliament wrote him a letter asking him to come. His wife Mary II became Queen.
English Bill of Rights
King William & Queen Mary ruled strictly under this. It had strict limitations.
Glorious Revolution of 1688
Also called the Bloodless Revolution established the principle of government by consent. Future kings & queens would be chosen in accordance with rules set by Parliament