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neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.

Biological Psychology

a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. (some call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists).

Peripheral Nervous System

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.

Temporal Lobes

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear.

Pituitary Glands

the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.


a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.


the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell. body.


central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.


the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.

Sensory Neurons

neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.

Motor Neurons

neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.


The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.

Motor cortex

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.

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