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Terms in this set (61)
emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
in personality theory, this perspective focuses on the effects of learning on our personality development
Big Five Factors
conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
painful or threatening memories and thoughts the person does not wish to confront
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities
Distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point.
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
empirically derived test
a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score.
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
Slips of the tongue that expose the unconscious
view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth
a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
a coping mechanism in which the person analyzes a situation from an emotionally detached viewpoint
locus of control
a person's tendency to perceive the control of rewards as internal to the self or external in the environment
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
excessive self-love and self-absorption
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
optimism versus pessimism
Optimism is the hopefulness and confidence about the future or the successful outcome of something. Pessimism is the tendency to see the worst aspect of things or believe the worst will happen
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
Jung's name for the unconscious mind as described by Freud
people are basically good, and given the right environment their personality will develop fully and normally
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment
psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
consistency of measurement
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
rorschach inkbot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of ten inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions
according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
one's sense of competence and effectiveness
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
self serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
according to Maslow, the striving for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context.
William Sheldon's theory that said our body type influenced our personality; included endomorphs (fat) who were friendly and outgoing; mesomorphs (muscular) who were confident and assertive; ectomorphs (thin) who were shy and secretive; theory not considered scientifically valid today
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)
solid to gas
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
terror management theory
a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what its supposed to do
a man's want to be able to reproduce
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