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5.3,5.4, 5.5 Historical geography
King of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great
an ancient kingdom north of greece, whose ruler philip II conquered Greece in 338 B.C.
alexander the great
Conquered and ruled an empire stretching from Macedonia to the Indus Valley
Persian king who lost his empire to Alexander the Great
a wise and able statesman, politician, speaker, and general that led Athens during much of its golden age
461 to 429 B.C
time of pericles domination (Age of pericles)
1. to strengthen athenian democracy 2. to hold and strengthen the empire 3. to glorify athens
the three goals of pericles
increased the number of public officials with paid salaries and introducing direct democracy
What did pericles do to strengthen Athenian democracy?
Organized by Athens that was an alliance between a group of city-states
Who stole Delian League money for a strong Athenian navy and beautiful Athens?
A masterpiece of architectural design and craftsmanship witha 23,000 sq ft building
Who was the parthenon built for?
Sculptor of the parthenon
graceful, strong, and perfectly formed. faces showed no joy and anger-only serenity. portraying ideal beauty
Description of sculptures during the golden age
The art of ancient Greece and Rome, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized.
in the West
Where were the first greek theaters build?
Justice, leadership, and duties owed to the gods
What were greek plays about?
serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal with a sad ending. Featured a main character or a tragic hero with an extraordinary gift or ability
Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides
Three notable greek dramatists who wrote tragedies
three play series based on the family of Agamemnon, the mycenean king who commanded the greeks at troy-written by Aeschylus
oedipus the king and antigone
Two plays written by sophocles
Who wrote Medea and often featured strong women in his works?
scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humor that made fun of politics, respected people, and ideas at the time.
wrote the first great comedies, including the birds and lysistrata
comedy that portrayed the women of athens forcing their husbands to end the peloponnesian war
greek who lived in athens for a time, pioneered the accurate reporting of events and wrote a book on the persian wars
greatest historian of the classical age who believed that certain types of events and political situations recur over time
studying events and situations that recur over time
What did Thucydides believe would aid in understanding the present?
When did Sparta declare war on Athens?
war between Sparta and Athens
To avoid land battles with the spartan army and wait for an opportunity to strike sparta and its allies on the sea
When did Sparta and Athens form a truce?
430 B.C. (ish)
When did the plague come down on Athens?
When did Athens send a fleet carrying 20,000 soldiers to Sicily to destroy syracuse
Sparta's wealthiest allie
Crushing Defeat of Athens after their attempt at Syracuse
When did Athenian allies surrender and lose their empire, power, and wealth for good?
lovers of wisdom
questioned people's unexamined beliefs and ideas about justice and other traditional values
philosopher who is one of the most famous sophists who questioned the existence of traditional greek gods
philosopher who believed the absolute standards did exist for truth and justice and encouraged greeks to go farther and question themselves
When was socrates condemned to death?
student of socrates whose writings domiated philosophic thought in europe for nearly 1,500 years
Plato's book about his vision of a perfectly governed socitey
citizens falling into three classes: farmers, artisans, and warriors. The person with the greates insight and intelligence was philosopher-king
What did Plato's perfect society include?
student of plato-questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge.
When did Aristotle accept the king's invitation to tutor the 13 year old prince Alexander the great
the ancient kingdom of Philip II and Alexander the Great in the southeastern Balkans
king of macedonia 359-336 B.C. who was a brilliant general and ruthless politician that used heavy phalanx formations and fast-moving cavalry
athenian orator who tried to warn the greeks of the threat philip and his army posed and urged to unite them against philip
when athens and thebes joined forces to fight philip
battle of chaeronea
battle where the macedonians soundly beat the greeks and ended their overall independence
the epic tale of the heroic deeds performed by achilles during the trojan war
6000 thebes, with survivors sold into slavery
How many thebes were killed once alexander destroyed the city?
In 344 B.C. Alexander invadeded and conquered what?
surprised them with a weak point in the persian lines
What did Alexander do the darius III and the persians because he was outnumbered?
When did alexander conquer egypt and become pharaoh?
He launched a massive phalanx attack followed by a calvary charge to crumble the persian lines
What did Alexander do to fight the 250,000 persian men at Gaugmela?
small village near the ruins of ancient ninevah
Babylon, Susa, Persepolis
What other territories did Alexander conquer after Persia?
Greek historian who suggested that fire was set in revenge for the persian burning athens
What persian capital burned to the ground with a mysterious purpose?
one of his own provincial governors
who murdered darius III?
When did Alexander reach the indus valley?
How far did Alexander travel during his 11 years of conquering?
Where did Alexander and his army reach in the spring of 323 b.c.?
to organize and unify his empire, conquer arabia
What were alexander's future plans?
Ptolemy became governor of egypt, seleucus took most of the persian empire, and Antignous became king of Macedonia
What were Alexander's empires divided to?
The seleucid kingdom
What did Selecus's empire became known as?
Adopted persian dress and custom, married a persian woman, and included persians and other peoples in his army
What did alexander do to become more persian?
relating to the civilization, art, science, and literature of the Greek world from the reign of Alexander the Great to the late second century B.C.
the popular spoken language used in hellenistic cities and came from the greek word "common"
City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
By third century B.C.
When did Alexandria become an international community?
a lighthouse called the Pharos that soared over 350 ft high and stood over the Alexandria harbor
the alexandrian library
A collection of half a million papyrus scrolls that included many of the masterpieces of ancient literature
a man of Samos who reached the scientific conclusion that the sun was at least 300 times larger than earth and earth and other planets revolved around the sun
An alexandrian renowned astronomer who incorrectly placed earth at the center of the solar system-accepted for the next 14 centuries
director of the alexandrian library who tried to calculate earth's size by geometry
Greek Mathematician (Father of Geometry) who taught in Alexandria
a man who lived inalexandria and charted the position of 850 stars
book written by euclid that contained 465 carefully pressed geometry propositions and proofs
Scientist from Syracuse, estimated the value of pi, invented the screw, and explained the law of the lever and pulley
force pump, pneumatic machines, and steam engines
machines later built by hellenistic scientists from archimedes ideas
greek philosopher who founded the school of philosophy called stoicism
those who proposed that people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of god or the natural laws that god established to run the universe
human desires, power, and wealth-the dangerous distractions
What did stoics preach?
man who founded the school of thought called epicureanism and taught that gods who had no interest in humans ruled the universe
people who believed that the only real objects were those that the five senses perceived and proposed that main goal of humans was to achieve harmony of the body and mind
colossus of rhodes
Largest known Hellenistic statues, one of the wonders of the ancient world hit by an earthquake in 225 b.c.
statue of nike of samothrace
bronze statue created after the colossus of rhodes made to commemorate a greek naval victory in 203 b.c.
natural works of old age, wrinkles, and ordinary features
description of hellenistic sculptures
when did the hellenistic world decline?