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Which would be a better description of naive realism, "seeing is believing" or "believing is seeing"?
believing is seeing
Our ability to trust our own intuitions and experiences
Event though our perceptions are often accurate, we can't always trust them to provide us with an error free picture of the world.
Our common sense____always wrong
Science is an____to evidence
A scientific model like the Big Bang theory, which provides an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world, is known as a_____ _____
In scientific research,____are general explanations, whereas____are specific predictions derived from these explanations
Sarah's motivation for cheating on the test was fear of failure. (Theory or Hypothesis?)
Darwin's evolutionary model explains the changes in species over time. (Theory or Hypothesis?)
The universe began in a gigantic explosion about 14 billion year ago. (Theory or Hypothesis?)
Our motivation to help a stranger in need is influenced by the number of people present. (Theory or Hypothesis?)
Crime rate in Nashville increases as the temperature rises
When presented with both contradictory and supportive evidence regarding a hypothesis we are researching, our tendency t disregard the contradictory evidence is our___ ____
Metaphysical claims, such as the existence of God, the soul, or the afterlife, differ from pseudoscientific claims in that they aren't____
____ clams appear scientific but don't play by the rules of science
Pseudoscience lacks the safeguards against ____ and ____ that characterize science
confirmation bias, belief perseverance`
The growth of popular psychology has led to a ___explosion
About___percent of self-help books are untested
There are over 500 "brands" of___, with new ones being added every year
A recent survey of the American public shows that pseudoscientific and other questionable beliefs are (rare/widespread)
Although the tendency to make order out of disorder is generally___, it can lead us astray into pseudoscientific thinking
Apophenia is the tendency for us to make meaningful connections among (related/unrelated) phenomena
We may attribute paranormal significance to coincidences that are probably due to
The tendency to see meaningful images in meaningless visual stimuli is called
According to___ ___theory, our awareness of our own inevitable death leaves many of us with an underlying sense of terror
Being open minded but conservative about accepting claims without evidence is___ ___
The skill set for evaluating all claims in an open minded and careful manner, both inside and outside the classroom or laboratory, is called___ ___
critical (or scientific) thinking
Scientific thinking (can/can't) be applied to claims in the media, Internet, self help books, and any other information outlet outside the psychology laboratory
When evaluating a claim, we should ask ourselves whether we've excluded other plausible___for it
The assumption that because one thing is associated with another, it must cause the other is the definition of the___
A claim is considered___if it could in principle de disproved
The ability of others to consistently duplicate a study's findings is called___
Occam's Razor is also called the principle of___
How would you use Occam's Razor to select among different explanations for crop circles (like this one)?
There are two explanations for crop circles- one supernatural and the other natural. According to Occam's Razor, we should generally select the simplest explanation.
Structuralism aimed to identify the basic element of through through___
For traditional behaviorists, the human mind is a ___ ___: We know what goes into it and what comes out of it, but we needn't worry about what happens between inputs and outputs.
Cognitivists believe our___of rewards and punishments is a crucial determinant of our behavior
You (need/don't need) a Ph.D. to become a therapist
How do developmental psychologists spend the bulk of their time?
Developmental psychologists spend most of their time in the lab, collecting and analyzing data on children's behavior
___ ___, a discipline that applies Darwin's theory of natural selection to human and animal behavior, has shed light on the nature-nurture debate
Many psychologists, such as B.F. skinner, believe that free will is a(n)
____research examines how the mind works, whereas___research examines how we use research to solve real world problems
What have psychologists who study magazine advertisements learned about how best to capture readers' attention?
Human faces better capture readers' attention on the left rather than on the right side of pages. Written text, in contrast, better captures readers' attention on the right side.
Psychologists with expertise in measuring academic achievement and knowledge were primarily responsible for developing the ___and___
Describe how psychological research affects our daily lives
Psychological research has shown how psychology can be applied to such diverse fields as advertising, public safety, the criminal justice system, and education
Describe the two great debates that have shaped the field of psychology
The two great debates are the nature-nurture debate, which asks whether our behaviors are attributed mostly to our genes (nature) or our environments (nurture), and the free will-determinism debate, which asks to what extent our behaviors are freely selected rather than caused by factors outside our control. Both debates continue to shape the field of psychology.
Describe different types of psychologists and identify what each of them does
Identify the major theoretical frameworks of psychology
The cognitive view
(can you explain?)
Identify and explain the text's 6 principles of scientific thinking
1. ruling out rival hypotheses 2. correlation versus causation 3. falsifiability 4. replicability 5. extraordinary claims 6. Occam's Razor
Identify the key features of scientific skepticism
-Scientific Skepticism requires us to evaluate all claims with an open mind but to insist on compelling evidence before accepting them.
-Scientific Skeptics evaluate claims on their own merit and are unwilling to accept them on the basis of authority alone.
Identify reasons we are drawn to pseudoscience
We are drawn to pseudoscience beliefs because the human mind tends to perceive sense in nonsense and order in disorder.
-Although generally adaptive, this tendency ca lead us to see patterns when they don't exist.
-Pseudoscientific claims can result in opportunity costs and direct harm due to dangerous treatments.
-They can also lead us to think less scientifically about other important domains of modern life
Explain the importance of science as a set of safe guards against biases
Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and deny, dismiss, or distort evidence that doesn't. Belief perseverance is the tendency to cling to our beliefs despite contrary evidence
-The scientific method is a set of safe guards against these two errors.
Explain why psychology is more than just common sense
Psychology is the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior. Although we often rely on our common sense to understand the psychological world, our intuitive understanding of ourselves and others is often mistaken.
-Naive realism is the error of believing that we see the world precisely as it is. It can lead us to false beliefs about ourselves and our world, such as believing that our perceptions and memories are always accurate.
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