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Chemistry SAT Subject Test
From Barrons. Kill yourself now.
Terms in this set (68)
What is the mass of 1 amu?
1/12 the mass of a Carbon-12 atom
What is Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle?
it is impossible to determine with perfect accuracy the momentum and position of an electron
What is Pauli exclusion princip?
no two electrons in a given atom can possess the same set of four quantum numbers
What is Hund's rule?
it states that within a given subshell, orbitals are half-filled so that they each have one electron before any orbital is fully occupied
What are the four quantum numbers(names/symbol) and what do they represent?
Principle, Azimuthal, Magnetic, Spin (n, l, ml,ms)
Energy Level (1,2,3), Subshell(s,p,d,f), Orbital(px,py,pz), Spin(1/2,-1/2)
What elements form complexes? Why do these complexes possess bright colors?
because it splits the d orbital
What are the exceptions to the octet rule?
Hydrogen (2), Lithium (2), Beryllium (4), Boron (6), and elements above the third energy level
What is it called if more than one structure can be drawn?
Equation for formal charge:
Name two properties of Lewis Structures that are preferred (as far as formal charge is concerned)
less formal charge
negative formal charge on electronegative atoms
What is the composition of a single bond, and a double bond?
sigma and pi
How do you find the empirical formula?
1. assume sample is out of 100 g
2. Find individual moles
3. Divide mole answers by smallest mole
4. Convert to whole numbers.
How does a barometer work?
How does a manometer work?
container of liquid open to the atmosphere, pressure is how high the liquid rises, in mm Hg
liquid is placed in y-tube with one end exposed (lower end = greater pressure)
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures:
Total Pressure of gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of partial pressures
Law of Charles and Gay-Lussac:
Ideal Gas Law/Value of R
PV = nRT (R: 8.21 * 10^-2 L)
Density of Gas from Ideal:
Average Molecular Speeds (one mole of gas):
Graham's Law of Diffusion and Effusion:
r1/r2 = (m2/m1)^.5
What will happen if a glowing splint is lowered into a test tube containing oxygen?
it will reignite
What color does hydrogen?
Does nitrogen react a lot?
No, it's relatively inert
What happens when carbon dioxide passes through limewater?
the solution turns cloudy because of the formation of Calcium Carbonate and Water, with the Calcium Carbonate dissolving in the acidic CO2 containing water
How can you determine the structure of crystalline solids?
What is Henry's Law?
at a constant temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas on the liquid
How do you measure parts per million, Molarity, molality, and normality?
ppm: grams of solute/1,000,000 g
molarity: moles of solute/L of solution
molality: moles of solute/kilogram of solvent
normality: number of equivalents/L
What is the formula for dilution?
M1V1 = M2V2
What is Raoult's Law?
Vapor Pressure Lowering: final vapor = mole fraction of solute * initial vapor pressure
What is the formula for freezing/boiling point depression?
∆T = K* m(molality)
Note: molality is TOTAL molality of substance
What is the formula for osmotic pressure?
osmotic pressure = MRT
What is the Law of Mass Action?
Le Chat: Increased pressure:
moves to the endothermic side
WHat is the Solubility Product Constant?
Ksp = [A]^m[B]^n
What is the common ion effect?
If a salt is dissolved in a solution that contains one of its ions, the solubility decreases (and production of salt increases)
First Law of Thermodynamics:
Q = ∆U + W (∆U is change in internal energy, q is heat added, w is work a system does)
What is entropy?
S = q/T (measure of disorder in a system)
What is the entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero?
What is Gibbs Free Energy?
How does Gibbs Free Energy affect the possibility of a reaction?
∆G = ∆H-T∆S
If ∆G<0 then a reaction is spontaneous
What happens if :
∆H - ∆S +
∆H + ∆S -
∆H + ∆S +
∆H - ∆S -
spontaneous at high temperatures
spontaneous at low temperatures
What is rate Law:
What is a zero-order reaction (slope?)
graph of time against [A] (rate=k)
What is a first-order reaction (slope?)
graph of time against [A] (rate = k[A], so natural log of [A] against time yields slope of k)
Given a graph of the progress of a reaction:
1. The highest point is:
2. The peaks represent:
rate determining step
An Arrehnius acid produces ___ and base produces ____
A Bronsted Lowry acid____
A Lewis acid ____
Formula for pH:
pH = -log[H]
What is the acid dissociation constant for the equation HI --> H+I
the weaker acid, the smaller the Ka
What is the gram equivalent weight?
gram molecular weight/# of acid/base equivalents (NORMALITY)
What acid base reaction do NOT produce water?
weak base + strong/weak acid
What is the equation of equivalence point?
VN = VN
What is a buffer made of?
roughly equal molar quantities of a weak acid/base and its salt
What is the order of balancing redox equations?
balance non H or O, then O by adding H2O, then H with H+
What is the charge of a galvanic anode? What occurs there? What is ∆G?
What is the charge of a electrolytic anode? What occurs there? What is ∆G?
What is a Faraday?
amount of charge contained in one mole of electrons
What is the reduction potential of a species? What is the reduction potential of the standard hydrogen electrode(SHE)?
tendency of a species to acquire electrons and be reduced
What is the standard electromotive force?
EMF: Ered + Eox
What is the relationship between the mass of the nucleus and the combined masses of its constituent protons/neutrons? Why?
mass defect, mass converted to energy
What does Alpha Decay Produce? What are its properties?
2 protons, 2 neutrons
massive, doesn't penetrate far
What does Beta Decay Produce? What are its properties?
emission of a ß- particle (like an electron, but really decay from nucleus: neutron becomes a proton emitting an electron)
What is gamma decay?
emission of high energy photons (no charge, just lower the energy of the emitting nucleus)
What is positron emission?
the emission of a positively charged particle, conversion of a proton to a neutron
What is electron capture?
capture an electron, covert a proton to neutron
A carbon with four single bonds corresponds to what hybridization? 2 single, 1 double? 1 single, 1 triple? What are their bond angles?