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36 terms

Chapter 4 : States

vocabulary from chapter
STUDY
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Autonomias
Spanish regions with devolved powers
Center
Nation's capital and its powers
Center-periphery tension
Resentment of outlying areas at rule by nation's capital
Centrifugal
Pulling apart
Confederation
Political system in which components override center
Decentralization
Shifting some administrative functions from central government to lower levels; less than devolution
Department
French first order civil division
Devolution
Shifting some powers from central government to component units
Failed state
One incapable of even minimal governance, with essentially no national government
Federalism
Balancing of power between a nation's capital and autonomous subdivisions, such as U.S. states.
First-order civil divisions
Countries' main territorial components, such as U.S. states or Spanish provinces.
Glasnost
Gorbachev's policy of media openness
Institutionalized
To make a political relationship permanent
Laissez-faire
French for "let it be"; economic system of minimal government interference and supervision; capitalism
Land
German federal first-order civil divison; plural Lander
Majoritarian
Electoral system that gives more than half of seats to one party
Majority
More than half
Mixed-member
Hybrid electoral system that uses both single member districts and proportional representation
Monarchy
Hereditary rule by one person
Nation
Population with a historic sense of self
Plurality
The most, even if less than half
Political institution
Established and durable pattern of authority
Prefect
Administrator of a French department
Prefecture
Japanese first-order civil division
Proportional representation
Elects representatives by party's percent of vote
Quasi
Nearly or almost
Regionalism
Feeling of regional differences and sometimes breakaway tendencies
Republic
A political system without a monarch; in Communist Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, federal first-order civil division
Single-member district
Electoral system that elects one person per district, as in the United States and Britain
Socialism
Economic system of government ownership of industry, allegedly for good of whole society; opposite of capitalism
State
Government structures of a nation
Statism
Economic system of state ownership of major industries to enhance power and prestige of state; a pre-capitalist system
Strong state
Modern form of government, able to administer and tax entire nation
Unitary system
Centralization of power in a nation's capital with little autonomy for subdivisions
Weak state
One unable to govern effectively, corrupt and penetrated by crime
Welfare state
Economic system of major government redistribution of income to poorer citizens