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Social Problems Chapter 3: Alcohol and Other Drugs
Terms in this set (138)
-any substance other than food that alters the structure or functioning of a living organism when it enters the bloodstream.
-any chemical substance that (1) has a direct effect on the user's physical, psychological, and/or intellectual functioning (2) has the potential to be abused (3) has adverse consequences for the individual and/or society
Since societies vary in how they define and respond to drug use?
-drug use is influenced by the social context of the particular society in which it occurs.
The top 4 most widely used illicit drugs are?
-cannabis (marijuana and hashish), amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cocaine, and opiate-based drugs.
What countries have higher alcohol use than others?
-North and South American countries, European countries, New Zealand, and Japan than in Middle Eastern or African countries or China.
What percent and where do most smokers in the world come from?
-low and middle-income countries
How does drug use vary by location?
-Lifetime use of amphetamines among 15 to 64 population is lowest in Greece and highest in United Kingdom
-Lifetime use of any illicit drug by 15 and 16 year olds is highest in Czech Republic and lowest in Armenia
How does drug use vary by time?
- high school seniors had drop in bingeing
-30-day prevalence of smoking by high school seniors dropped, increased, then dropped again.
How do variations in drug policies affect drug use?
-Netherlands had policy of treating the use of drugs like marijuana and hashish as a public health issue rather than a criminal justice issue since mid 1970s. Treatment of drug user and prevention of future drug use are prioritized over imprisonment. First decade, drug use did not increase, but increases in marijuana use came with the advent of "cannabis cafes". Some evidence suggests marijuana use among Dutch youth is decreasing, rebutting those who would argue that liberal drug policies result in increased drug abuse.
-Great Britain adopted a "medical model" in regard to heroin and cocaine. Early 1960s, English doctors prescribed opiates and cocaine for their drug-addicted patients who were unlikely to quit using drugs on their own and for the treatment of withdrawal symptoms. By 1970s, British laws became more restrictive, making it difficult for physicians or users to obtain drugs legally. Today, British government policy provides for limited distribution of drugs by licensed drug treatment specialists to addicts who might otherwise resort to crime to support their habits.
What are cannabis cafes?
-Netherland/Dutch coffee shops that sell small amounts of marijuana for personal use and that prevent casual marijuana users from coming into contact with hard drug dealers.
-Concerns over the tolerance policy and many drug tourists, led conservative government to require that coffee shops be "member-only" establishments.
What do many other countries do to drug users in contrast to health-based policies?
-execute drug users or subject them to corporal punishment (whipping, stoning, beating, and torture)
-such policies are found primarily in less developed nations, where religious and cultural prohibitions condemn the use of any type of drug like alcohol and tobacco.
-Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, and Pakistan subject drug offenders to severe punishments including the threat of death.
What are the cultural definitions of drug use in U.S.?
-contradictory--condemning it on one hand, yet encouraging and tolerating it on the other.
-At various times in U.S. history, drugs that are illegal today were legal and readily available.
-In 1800s and 1900s opium was used as pain reliever, morphine was taken for dysentery and fatigue, amphetamine-based inhalers were legally available until 1949, and cocaine was in Coca Cola until 1906 when caffeine replaced cocaine.
-Americans' concerns with drugs have varied over the years.
-In 1970s when drug use was highest, concern was low. In 2010 nearly 2/3 Americans believe that drug abuse is a significant problem in America.
-Use of illicit drugs in U.S. is a fairly common phenomenon
What is drug abuse?
-occurs when acceptable social standards of drug use are violated, resulting in adverse physiological, psychological, and/or social consequences.
-does not always entail drug addiction.
What is chemical dependency?
-(drug addiction) refers to a condition in which drug use is compulsive--users are unable to stop because of their dependency.
-The dependency may be psychological and/or physical
What are some withdrawal symptoms of marijuana?
-depression, anger, decreased appetite, restlessness
What background do individuals who are usually dependent on or abuse illicit drugs come from?
-male, American Indians or Alaska natives, unemployed, and between ages of 18 and 25.
Theories of drug use explain how?
-drug use is not simply a matter of individual choice
-structural, cultural, biological, psychological, social factors influence drug use and society's responses to it.
What is the structural functionalist perspective on drug use and abuse?
-Drug abuse is a response to weakening societal norms. As society becomes more complex and as rapid social change occurs, norms and values become unclear and ambiguous, resulting in anomie--a state of normlessness. Anomie may exist at the societal level, resulting in social strains and inconsistencies that lead to drug use.
-Anomie produces inconsistencies in cultural norms regarding drug use. Although public health officials and health care professionals warn of the dangers of alcohol and tobacco, advertisers glorify the use of alcohol and tobacco, and the U.S. government subsidizes the alcohol and tobacco industries.
-Cultural traditions,like giving away cigars for birth of child or toasting a bride and groom with champagne, persist.
-Anomie at the individual level like when a person suffers feelings of estrangement, isolation, and turmoil over appropriate and inappropriate behavior (more vulnerable to drug use)
-Drug use is a response to the absence of a perceived bond between the individual and society and to the weakening consensus of regarding what is considered acceptable.
-National poll of 18 years or older, peer pressure and lack of parental supervision were the two most common responses given for why teenagers take drugs.
-Importance of family in deterring drug use is highlighted in the national youth media campaign--"Parents. The Anti-Drug"
What is the conflict perspective on drug use and abuse?
-emphasizes the importance of power differentials in influencing drug use behavior and societal values concerning drug use.
-Drug use occurs as a response to the inequality perpetuated by a capitalist system.
-Societal members, alienated from work, friends, and family as well as from society and its institutions, turn to drugs as a means of escaping the oppression and frustration caused by the inequality they experience.
-The most powerful members of society influence the definitions of which drugs are illegal and the penalties associated with illegal drug production, sales, and use.
-Alcohol is legal since it is consumed by those who have power and influence to define its acceptability: white males. This group profits from sale and distribution of alcohol and can afford powerful lobbying groups in Washington D.C. to guard the alcohol industry's interests. Since this group also uses tobacco and caffeine, societal definitions of these substances are also relatively accepting.
-Minority group members use crack cocaine rather than powdered cocaine. Although pharmacological properties of the two drugs are the same, possession of 5 grams of crack cocaine carries the same penalty under federal law as possession of 500 grams of powdered cocaine. 2010 Congress voted to change the 1986 law that established the 100 to 1 ratio sentencing disparity but also eliminates the 5 year mandatory minimum for first time possession of crack cocaine. Of people convicted of crack offenses, 80% are African American.
-use of opium by Chinese immigrants in 1800s; Chinese brought to U.S. to work on railroads, smoked opium as part of their cultural tradition. As unemployment of white workers increased, so did resentment of Chinese workers. Attacking the use of opium was a means of attacking Chinese and Nevada became first to prohibit opium use.
-Criminalization of other drugs like cocaine, heroin, and marijuana follows similar patterns of social control of the powerless, political opponents, and/or minorities. 1940s marijuana used primarily by minorities and users faced severe criminal penalties. But after white, middle-class college students used marijuana in 1970s, the government reduced penalties associated with is use. Although the nature and pharmacological properties of the drug had not changed, the population of users was now connected to power and influence.
-Regard the regulation of drugs, as well as drug use itself, as a reflection of differences in the political, economic, and social power of various interest groups.
What is the symbolic interactionist perspective on drug use and abuse?
-concentrates on the social meanings associated with drug use.
-If the initial drug use experience is defined as pleasurable, it is like to recur, and the individual may earn the label of "drug user" over time. If this definition is internalized so that the individual assumes an identity of a drug user, the behavior will probably continue and may even escalate.
-Copes observed that respondents who self-identified as "hustlers" rather than "crackheads" were less likely to fall prey to the debilitating effects of the drug for slipping into uncontrollable addiction is antithetical to the hustler identity.
-Drug use is also learned through symbolic interaction in small groups. Students who believed that their friends were binge drinking were more likely to also engage in binge drinking themselves.
-First-time users learn not only the motivations for drug use and its techniques but also what to experience.
-Marijuana users not only learn the way to ingest the smoke but also to label the experience positively. When peers define certain drugs, behaviors, and experiences as not only acceptable but also pleasurable, drug use is likely to continue.
-symbols can be manipulated and used for political and economic agendas. DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) program, with its anti drug emphasis fostered by local schools and police, carries a powerful symbolic value with which politicians want the public to identify. Ameliorative programs which are imbued with these potent symbolic qualities are virtually assured widespread public acceptance regardless of actual effectiveness, and in turn advances the interests of political leaders who benefit from being associated with highly visible, popular symbolic programs. West and O'Neal foudn that DARE does not significantly prevent drug use among school-aged children.
What are biological and psychological theories on drug use and abuse?
-Drug use and addiction are the result of complex interplay of social, psychological, and biological forces.
-Drug use and addiction caused by a "bio-behavioral disorder" which combines biological and psychological factors.
-Biological research has concentrated on the role of genetics in predisposing an individual to drug use. Early on-set alcoholism may be genetically predisposed, with some men havin 10 times the risk of addiction as those without genetic predisposition. Depression, chronic anxiety, and attention deficit disorder are also linked to the likelihood of addiction. But nobody is "predestined" to be an alcoholic.
-Biological theories also hypothesize some individuals are physiologically predisposed to experience more pleasure from drugs than others, and so are more likely to be drug users. The central nervous system, which is composed of brain and spinal cord, processes drugs through neurotransmitters in a way that produces an unusually euphoric experience. Individuals not so physiologically inclined reported less pleasant experiences and are less likely to continue use.
-Psychological explanations focus on the tendency of certain personality types to be more susceptible to drug use. Individuals who are particularly prone to anxiety may be more likely to use drugs as a way to relax, gain self-confidence, or ease tension. Research indicates that child maltreatment, particularly among females, contributes to alcohol and drug abuse that extends into adulthood.
-Psychological theories also emphasize that drug use may be maintained by positive or negative reinforcement. Cocaine maintained by positive high, heroin maintained because of the distress of severe withdrawal symptoms.
-Reinforcement may come from a variety of sources including the media.Eexposure to alcohol use in movies was positively associated with early-onset drinking.
What three ways do social definitions regarding which drugs are legal or illegal vary?
-over time, circumstance, and societal forces.
T or F: In the United States, two of the most dangerous and widely abused drugs, alcohol and tobacco, are legal
How have Americans' attitudes toward alcohol have a long and varied history?
-Although alcohol was common in early America, by 1920 federal government prohibited its manufacture, sale, and distribution by 18th amendment. This Prohibition, like opium laws, was a moral crusade against immigrants who were more likely to use alcohol. The amendment had little popular support and was repealed in 1933.
-Today, the U.S. population is experiencing a resurgence of concern over alcohol, "new temperance" seen in federally mandated 21 year old drinking age laws, warning labels on alcohol bottles, increased concern over fetal alcohol syndrome and underage drinking, stricter enforcement of drinking and driving regulations, and zero tolerance policies.
-The rate of heavy alcohol use for 12 to 20 year olds dropped between 2002 and 2010.
What is the most widely used and abused drug in America?
How are alcoholics different from others?
-Most people who drink alcohol do so moderately and experience negative effects; people with alcoholism are psychologically and physically addicted to alcohol and suffer various degrees of physical, economic, psychological, and personal harm.
What are current users?
-people who consumed alcohol at least once in the month preceding the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
What is heavy drinking?
-5 or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days prior to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
What is binge drinking?
-5 or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days prior to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
The likelihood of a college student binge drinking is impacted by environmental variables like?
-place of residence, cost and availability of alcohol, campus/local/state alcohol policies, age/gender/ethnic and racial makeup of student population, prevention strategies, and college drinking culture.
T or F: Many binge drinkers began drinking in high school with almost 1/3 having their first drink before age 13.
T or F: The younger the age of onset, the lower the probability that an individual will develop a drinking disorder at some time in his or her life.
What are some additional results from National Survey on Drug Use and Health?
-The highest levels of both heavy and binge drinking are among 21 to 25 year olds; people 65 or older had the lowest rates of binge drinking.
-Rates of alcohol use are higher among the full-time employed adults than among the unemployed; however, patterns of heavy or binge drinking are highest among the unemployed.
-Binge drinking rates for full-time college students decreased between 2009 and 2010; however, the rate of heavy drinking among those enrolled in full-time college is higher than for those not enrolled in college full-time.
-Asians are least likely to report binge drinking, and Hispanics or Latinos are most likely to report it.
-Underage current drinkers (12 to 20) were most likely from the Northeast, followed by Midwest, West, and South.
-More males than females age 12 to 20 reported binge drinking, heavy drinking, and current alcohol use.
T or F: Males are more likely than females to abuse alcohol.
T or F: Female drinking is on the rise.
Who first cultivated tobacco and introduced it to Europeans in the 1500s?
Why did Europeans first like tobacco?
-Believed that it had medicinal properties and its use spread in Europe and was good for economy in colonies of New World.
How was tobacco used? How is it used today?
-chewing and snuffing
When did scientific evidence link tobacco smoking to lung cancer?
When did U.S. Surgeon General conclude that tobacco products are addictive and that nicotine causes dependency?
Where do most smokers in the world come from?
-low or middle income countries
What is meta-analysis?
-combines the results of several studies addressing a research question (analysis of analyses)
What is the relationship between income and smoking?
-relationship is stronger for younger age groups than older.
What are the 4 stages explaining the relationship between income and smoking?
(1) smoking disseminates among higher-income groups who are more open to innovation.
(2) smoking diffuses to the rest of the population
(3) smoking declines among the high-income level strata, as they are concerned with health, fitness, and the harm of smoking
(4) Only after a long history of cigarette consumption, when all socioeconomic status groups have been similarly exposed to smoking, does the inverse social status gradient emerge.
Use of all tobacco products higher for?
-high school graduates than for college graduates, males, American Indians, and Alaska natives
How is youth and tobacco related?
-Youth develop attitudes and beliefs about tobacco products at an early age
-advertising on tobacco continues to have an influence on youth.
What is the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act?
-outlawed flavored cigarettes most often marketed to children.
-Tobacco companies said that it only covers cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, and smokeless tobacco; and cigars are excluded from the control of FDA
-Several tobacco companies have begun selling small flavored cigars, which increased fears that marketing tobacco products to children is likely to continue.
How do cigarette advertisers target minorities?
-Primack said that tobacco advertisements in African American communities were 2.6 times higher per person than in white communities.
-Likelihood of tobacco-related billboards was 70% higher in African American than in white communities.
-menthol cigarettes are marketed to younger and black smokers.
How does tobacco industry target women?
-Morris's purse packs modeled after cosmetic cases and are half the size of a regular package of cigarettes.
-In developing countries, most women don't use tobacco and so advertising, promotion, sponsorship, and charitable donations weaken the cultural opposition to women using tobacco. Product design and marketing, including use of models and brands for women, are crafted to encourage women to smoke.
Users of illegal drugs tend to be?
-males, young, minority
What is the most commonly used and most heavily trafficked illicit drug?
3 top places where marijuana is cultivated?
-Mexico, Paraguay, U.S.
What is the active ingredient in marijuana?
-THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) can act as a sedative or hallucinogen.
What is the top of the marijuana plant called?
hashish (more potent than marijuana)
What is the history of marijuana like?
-origins in China 2737 b.c., used in India, Middle East, Europe for long traditions
What was marijuana called before in North America?
-hemp (used to make rope and treatment for ailments)
What is the Marijuana Tax Act?
-1937 law restricted the use of marijuana
-passed as a result of a media campaign that portrayed marijuana users as "dope fiends"
-conflict theorists noted the growing sentiment against Mexican immigrants who used marijuana.
What are the three top initiated illicit drugs?
-marijuana, pain relievers, inhalants.
What is a gateway drug?
-A drug (like marijuana) that is believed to lead to the use of other drugs.
What is the gateway hypothesis?
-consumption of abusable drugs progresses in orderly fashion through several discrete stages.
-The sequence, which is exhibited by only a small minority of drug users, begins with beer or wine and moves progressively through hard liquor or tobacco, marijuana; then finally hard drugs.
-people who experiment with one drug are more likely to experiment with another. Most drug users use several drugs at the same time. Ghany noted that there is a strong contemporaneous relationship between smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, smoking marijuana, and using cocaine.
Cocaine is classified as a?
-stimulant; produces feelings of excitation, alertness, and euphoria.
How has cocaine abuse become a concern over last 20 years?
-increased use, addictive qualities, physiological effects, and worldwide distribution have fueled concerns.
-cocaine led to the early phases of the war on drugs more than any other drug.
What plant does cocaine come from?
When did anti-cocaine sentiment emerge and against who?
-early 1900s, urban blacks, poor whites, criminals.
What is the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act?
-Cocaine was outlawed in 1914, but its use and effects continued to be misunderstood.
What was the largest cocaine epidemic?
-As demand and supply increased, prices fell from $100 to $10 a dose
-1978 to 1987
How has cocaine use changed globally?
-General decrease, particularly in North America where largest number of cocaine users found. Cocaine use declining in developed countries but increasing in developing countries.
-Europe is exception, cocaine use has increased and is now second most commonly used illicit drug after cannabis.
What is crack?
-a crystallized product made by boiling a mixture of baking soda, water, and cocaine. The result (also called rock, base, and gravel) is inexpensive and was not popular until mid 1980s.
-one of the most dangerous drugs
-crack dealers give first few hits free knowing that the high and addictive qualities bring customers back.
-addiction to crack can take 6 to 10 weeks; an addiction to pure cocaine can take 3 to 4 years.
-Decline in crack use reflected in H.S., great risk of harming themselves with crack.
What is methamphetamine?
-a central nervous system stimulant that is highly addictive.
-WWII used it to reduce fatigue and enhance performance.
-because it was extremely expensive and difficult to obtain back then, meth was never close to being as widely used as cocaine.
-Today, meth is inexpensive and easily obtained, since large amounts smuggled into U.S. from Mexico and the ease of production.
-Can be made from cold medications like Sudafed
What is the Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996?
-made obtaining the chemicals needed to make methamphetamine more difficult
What is the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act?
-articulated standards for selling over-the-counter medications used in methamphetamine production.
What is the shake-and-bake process?
-Producers realized that by making smaller amounts at a time, they could use less pseudoephedrine, flying under the radar of the anti-meth laws.
-drug users can make crystal meth while driving; add a couple of handfuls of cold medications to a two-liter bottle, pour in some chemicals, and shake.
-the number of do-it-yourself users has contributed to a recent increase in seizures and arrests.
Globally, what is meth consumption like?
-With exception of Czech and Slovak countries, use of meth in Europe is fairly low.
-Prevalence of monthly meth use in U.S. has remained stable and decreased.
What are club drugs?
-illicit, often synthetic drugs commonly used at nightclubs or all-night dances called raves.
What is Ecstasy?
-highest use in Oceania and lowest use in Africa
-produces a visual albeit mild effect when ingested
What is ketamine?
- animal tranquilizer with hallucinatory effects
-use increasing globally like in Hong Kong
-use decreasing in U.S.
What is LSD?
-a synthetic hallucinogen
What is Salvia?
-herb grown in Mexico and Central and South America; imported into U.S.
-The plant as well as seeds, cuttings, and leaves, are sold over the Internet and in tobacco shops.
-legal in most of the U.S., although legislation controls the substance in 16 states.
What are date-rape drugs?
-Drugs that are used to render victims incapable of resisting sexual assaults.
What is GHB?
-central nervous system depressant
-1990 FDA banned, although kits containing ingredients to manufacture it available on Internet.
-2000 Clinton made GHB a controlled substance and thus illegal to manufacture, possess, or sell.
What is Rohypnol?
-tasteless and odorless depressant
-illegal in U.S.
-lawfully sold in Europe and Mexico for short-term treatment of insomnia.
-belongs to class of drugs called benzodiazepines
-effects begin within 20 minutes and can incapacitate a victim for up to 12 hours.
What is heroin?
-most commonly abused opiate
-comes from poppy fields of Afghanistan, which controls 90% of the global opium market and provides Taliban with an estimated $300 million a year.
-highly addictive, can be injected, snorted, or smoked.
-If intravenous injection used, onset is felt within 7 to 8 seconds. If heroin is snorted or smoked, effects are felt within 10 to 15 minutes.
-last 10 years in Europe and Asia, opiates like heroin have been main problem drugs as indicated by demand for treatment.
-In U.S., heroin use decreased, but high numbers of suburban middle class white students use them.
-Plan of drug lords from Mexico and Columbia market packets of heroin stamped with brand names, give some for free at first, then sell cheap later.
What are bath salts?
-contain dangerous chemicals that result in paranoia, rapid heart rate and chest pains, hallucinations, and suicidal thoughts, all which can lead to a visit to the ER or call to a poison control center.
-one of the newest designer drugs.
-Ivory Wave, Vanilla Sky, Bliss, White Lightening, Hurricane Charlie, Red Dove (innocuous-sounding names)
-banned in 28 states, bath salts sold in convenience stores, tobacco shops, over Internet.
What are psychotherapeutic drugs?
-2008-2009 nonmedical use of any prescription pain reliever, stimulant, sedative, or tranquilizer decreased.
-Most nonmedically used types of psychotherapeutic drugs are pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives
-Over half of users received drugs from friends and relatives for free.
-Recently, use of pain-relieving synthetic opioids like codeine and Oxycontin has increased.
What is Obama's four-pronged national plan aimed at fighting "America's Prescription Drug Abuse Crisis?
-increased awareness of the problem through education, prescription drug monitoring programs, development of proper drug-disposal facilities, and increased law enforcement focused on shutting down "pill mills" and "doctor shoppers".
What are the top 3 most commonly abused drugs by high school seniors?
-Marijuana/hashish, Vicodin, Amphetamines.
What are inhalants?
-act on central nervous system with users reporting a psychoactive, mind-altering effect.
-common inhalants include adhesives, food products, aerosols, anesthetics, and cleaning agents.
-over 1000 household products are currently abused.
-youth are prone to inhalant use, erroneously believing it is harmless or that prolonged use is necessary for any harm to result.
Who is a victim of drug abuse?
What is the cost to the family by drugs?
-In U.S., 1 in 10 children under age of 18 lives with at least one parent in need of treatment for drug or alcohol dependency.
-Children raised with alcohol/drug dependent parents are more likely to (1) live in an environment riddled with conflict. (2) have a higher probability of physical illness including injuries or death from an automobile accident (3) are more likely to be victims of child abuse and neglect
-Children of alcoholics, if using alcohol or other drugs, are more likely to have alcohol or drug problems than children of nonalcoholics.
-Children of alcoholics, particularly female children of alcoholics, suffer from significant mental health consequences that persist far into adulthood.
-Parents who report abusing alcohol in the past year are also more likely to report cigarette and illicit drug use than parents who did not report alcohol abuse in the previous year. They were also more likely to report "household turbulence", including yelling, serious arguments, and violence.
-both husbands and wives impacted by the alcoholism of their opposite sex parent.
What is the single most common trait associated with wife abuse?
What is the link between drugs and crime?
-drug behavior of individuals arrested, incarcerated, and in drug treatment programs shows link between drugs and crime.
-Parents on probation or parole not only use tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs at higher rates than parents not on probation or parole, they're also more likely to abuse or be addicted to alcohol or illicit drugs. Juvenile delinquency is associated with drug use too.
- Mulvey said juvenile offenders had substance abuse as a strong predictor of self-reported delinquent behavior and number of arrests; substance abuse treatment reduces the incidence of drug use and nondrug-related crime as well.
-complex; do drugs cause crime or does crime lead to drugs?
-Siegel said crime and drugs can occur at same time: someone can take drugs and commit crimes out of the desire to engage in risk-taking behaviors.
-Because both crime and drug use are associated with low socioeconomic status, poverty may actually be the more powerful explanatory variable.
-Some criminal offenses are defined by use of drugs: possession, cultivation, and sale of controlled substances; public intoxication; drunk and disorderly conduct; driving while intoxicated (common).
-1/3 of all traffic deaths is alcohol-related.
-Alcohol not the only drug that impairs driving: illicit drugs also impair driving. Rate of both is highest among 18 to 25 year olds.
Money spent on drug abuse is allocated most to doing what? And what does this consist of?
-"shoveling up the wreckage"
-(1)cost of health care due to substance abuse and addiction (highest proportion of wreckage spending) (2) adult and juvenile crime (3) child and family assistance programs (4) education (5) public safety (6) mental health and developmental disabilities (7) federal workforce.
-prevention programs must become a priority to reduce the economic costs of drug abuse.
Why do nonsmokers have higher health insurance than smokers?
-Because nonsmokers live longer.
What is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the world?
Where will most smokers die by 2030?
What are the 6 state initiatives from WHO to reverse the tobacco epidemic?
-(1) developing policies that prevent tobacco use (2) protecting people from tobacco smoke by developing smoke-free laws (3) providing help to people who want to quit using tobacco products (4) publicizing the dangers of tobacco products (5) banning and enforcing existing bans, which prohibit "tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship" (6) increasing the cost of tobacco products by raising taxes.
How does the health impact of smoking go beyond consumption and the effects of secondhand smoke?
-Children who work in tobacco fields are at risk for "green tobacco sickness" a disease caused by the absorption of nicotine through the skin by handling wet tobacco leaves.
T or F: Alcohol kills more people than AIDS, tuberculosis or violence.
What are the second and third leading preventable causes of death in the U.S.?
-deaths from illicit drugs, alcohol abuse
What physical problems are related to early and continued abuse of alcohol?
-cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, gastrointestinal diseases, epilepsy, intentional and unintentional injuries, violence, cardiovascular diseases.
-Maternal prenatal alcohol use is associated with one of the leading preventable causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities in children (fetal alcohol syndrome)
What is fetal alcohol syndrome?
-a syndrome characterized by serious physical and mental handicaps for the baby, including low birth weight, facial deformities, mental retardation, and hearing and vision problems.
What mental problems are there with alcohol/drug use?
-negative consequences: nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke are twice as likely to suffer from depression as nonsmokers not exposed to secondhand smoke.
-several disorders as identified by American Psychiatric Association are associated with increased risks of drug abuse including anti-social personality disorder, manic episodes, and schizophrenia.
How does drug use affect the environment?
-Much of the impact is a consequence of the cultivation of marijuana, cocaine, and opium (illegal drug production)
-causes deforestation, contaminated water, clear-cutting of natural vegetation, burning, disposed nonbiodegradable materials, diversion of natural waterways often polluted with toxic chemicals (which endanger fish/wildlife), contaminates national parks waterways.
What are some treatment alternatives to drug use?
-family therapy, counseling, private and state treatment facilities, community care programs, pharmacotherapy, behavior modification, drug maintenance programs, employee assistance programs.
-inpatient or outpatient treatment, peer support groups, and drug courts.
What is inpatient treatment?
-refers to treatment of drug dependence in a hospital and includes medical supervision of detoxification.
-most last between 30 and 90 days and target individuals whose withdrawal symptoms require close monitoring.
What is outpatient treatment?
-allows individuals to remain in their home and work environments and is often less expensive.
-patients are under the care of a physician who evaluates their progress regularly, prescribes needed medication, and watches for signs of a relapse.
T or F: The longer patients stay in treatment, the lower the likelihood of a successful recovery.
What are the four stages of a year-long substance abuse program?
-Phase 1 included 90 days of inpatient substance abuse treatment.
-Phase 2 included 90 days of outpatient treatment in an alcohol treatment facility accompanied by electronic monitoring, curfews, and weekly drug tests.
-Phase 3 included 90 days of outpatient treatment with individual and group counseling.
-Phase 4 included 90 days of outpatient treatment with a special emphasis on reintegration into the community.
What five variables were independent predictors of completion failure of treatment programs?
(1) had a history of significant problems with their mothers. (2) had problems with their sexual partners in the 30 days prior to admission to the program. (3) had longer periods of incarceration (4) had used heroin in the 30 days prior to admission to the program (5) were younger in age than those who successfully completed the program.
What are 2 twelve-step programs?
-Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA)
What are AA and NA?
-voluntary associations whose only membership requirement is the desire to stop drinking or taking drugs.
-self-help groups in that nonprofessionals operate them, offer "sponsors" to each new members, and proceed along a continuum of 12 steps to recovery.
-Members are immersed in a fellowship of caring individuals with whom they meet daily or weekly to affirm their commitment.
-AA and NA members trade their addiction to drugs for feelings of interpersonal connectedness by bonding with other group members.
-Symbolic interactionists emphasize that AA and NA provide social contexts in which people develop new meanings. Others who offer positive labels, encouragement, and social support for sobriety surround abusers.
-Sponsors tell new members that they can be successful in controlling alcohol and/or drugs one day at a time and provide regular interpersonal reinforcement for doing so.
-Kelly found that involvement in such groups may be very successful for both males and females even when participation is limited.
What are therapeutic communities?
-house between 35 and 500 individuals for up to 15 months, participants abstain from drugs, develop marketable skills, and receive counseling.
-Synanon was first therapeutic community for alcoholics and later expanded to drug users.
-Daytop Village and Phoenix House are the largest therapeutic communities in the country
-The longer a person stays at such a facility, the greater the chance of overcoming dependency.
-Living with a partner before entering the program and having a strong self-concept are also predictive of success.
What led to the development of drug courts?
-Concern over the punitive treatment of drug offenders and the failure of the criminal justice system to reduce recidivism rates.
What are drug courts?
-special courts that divert drug offenders to treatment programs in lieu of probation or incarceration.
-Drug courts are less expensive than probation or institutionalization.
What are the two types of drug courts?
-deferred prosecution programs and postadjudication programs.
What is a deferred prosecution court?
-Defendants who meet certain eligibility requirements are diverted into the drug court system prior to pleading to a charge.
-Defendants are not required to plead guilty, and those who complete the drug court program are not prosecuted further.
-Failure to complete the program results in prosecution.
What is a postadjudication court?
-Defendants must plead guilty to their charges, but their sentences are deferred or suspended while they participate in the drug court program.
-Successful completion of the program results in a waived sentenced and sometimes an expungement of the offense.
-Failure to meet the requirements of the drug court results in return to criminal court to face sentencing on the guilty plea.
How does one graduate from drug court?
-must complete the entire 6 month to 1 year program and remain drug-free without arrests for a specified period of time.
-Drug court graduates, when compared to traditional court graduates, are less likely to reoffend and/or have longer periods of time between arrests.
Is criminalizing alcohol/tobacco different from criminalizing illicit drugs?
-Yes, prohibition was a failure, and criminalizing tobacco likely to be failure too.
-strategies include economic incentives, government regulations, legal sanctions, and education and treatment.
How can economic incentives reduce alcohol/tobacco use?
-increase the cost of the product.
-Dinno and Glantz concluded that increased cigarette prices are associated with reduced prevalence and consumption rates.
-The benefit of increasing the cost of cigarettes varies by a state's current smoking and tax rate.
-Williams noted that increasing the price of alcohol. which can be achieved by eliminating price specials and promotions, or by raising price excise taxes, would lead to a reduction in both moderate and heavy drinking by college students.
-other economic incentives: reimbursement for smoking or alcohol cessation programs, reduced health insurance premiums for nonsmokers, and reduced car insurance premiums for nondrinkers.
How does government regulation reduce alcohol/tobacco use?
-1984 states raised the legal drinking age to 21 under the threat of losing federal highway funds.
-clean air laws restrict smoking in the workplace, bars, restaurants, and the like, and reduce consumption rates as well as secondhand smoke exposure.
-where tobacco package warnings are used, knowledge concerning the risks of tobacco use is increased.
What is the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009?
-gives authority to the FDA to regulate the manufacturing, marketing, and sale of tobacco products.
-requires that warning labels must be strengthened and cover at least the top half of the front and back panels of the packaging by Fall 2012.
How does legal action reduce alcohol/tobacco use?
-Federal and state governments, smokers, ex-smokers, and families of victims of smoking have taken legal action against tobacco companies. 1990s they sued for reimbursement of smoking-related health care costs.
-1998 tobacco manufacturers settled with victims, and the settlement also restricted the marketing, promotion, and advertising of tobacco products directed toward minors.
-U.S. Court of Appeals held that "the tobacco industry had and continues to engage in a massive, decades-long campaign to defraud the American public...including falsely denying that nicotine is addictive, falsely representing that 'light' and 'low tar' cigarettes present fewer health risks, falsely denying that they market to kids, and falsely denying that secondhand smoke causes disease."
-WHO says to develop and enforce tobacco controls, pass clean air laws, initiate school and health based smoking prevention programs for children and adolescents, and use warning labels with particular attention to cigarette packaging.
-A fundamental change is needed--it is time for Congress and other policy makers to change the legal structure of tobacco policy, thereby laying the foundation for a strategic initiative to end the nation's tobacco problem, that is, reducing tobacco use to a level that is insignificant from a public health standpoint.
How do prevention policies reduce alcohol/tobacco use?
-Exposure to cigarette or alcohol advertisements increases drug use and, conversely, exposure to anti-smoking or anti-drinking advertisements reduce drug use.
-Less than 5 percent of countries have total bans on the marketing, promotion, and sponsorship of tobacco products.
-A child who reached age 21 without smoking, using illicit drugs, or abusing alcohol is virtually certain never to do so.
What was the war on drugs?
-1980s federal government declared war on drugs, which was based on the belief that controlling drug availability would limit drug use and, in turn, drug-related problems.
-contrast to harm reduction position, had a zero-tolerance approach advocating get-tough law enforcement policies
-responsible for the increase in jail and prison population
-As meth enforcement steps up and crack cocaine use declines, the number of black compared to white drug offenders in prison has declined.
-Rockefeller drug laws had harsher penalties that required prison sentences for offenders (first-time or repeat) and limited judicial discretion in deciding what best served the public's interest. Disproportionate amount of Hispanics and African Americans received excessively long and unnecessary prison sentences for even the most minor drug offenders. The laws were seen as institutional racism and reform efforts began.
-led to a magnified concern about drugs and drug problems.
-policies meant to disrupt and deter the flow of illegal drugs into the U.S. have little impact on drug use and addiction.
-creates collateral damage: Duke and Gross argued that war on drugs, like Prohibition, intensified other social problems: drug-related gang violence and turf wars, the creation of syndicate-controlled black markets, unemployment, the spread of AIDS, overcrowded prisons, corrupt law enforcement officials, the diversion of police from other serious crimes, impact on families (conviction of a drug offense can lead to a parent being in prison, eviction from public housing, deportation, and permanent exclusion from public assistance).
-U.S. policy is two-pronged: demand reduction and supply reduction. (balanced approach)
-Most political parties believe war on drugs is failure and so people believe that it should be abandoned and deregulation should be established.
What is harm reduction?
-a public health position that advocates reducing the harmful consequences of drug use for the user as well as for society as a whole (clean syringes)
What is demand reduction?
-entails reducing the demand for drugs through treatment, prevention, and research (40.6%)
What is supply reduction?
-more punitive, relies on international efforts, interdiction, and domestic law enforcement to reduce the supply of illegal drugs.
What is deregulation?
-the reduction of government control over certain drugs.
Personal possession of any drug is legal in?
-Spain, Italy, Baltic States, Czech Republic.
What is legalization?
-making prohibited behaviors legal.
Proponents of legalization?
-affirm the right of adults to make informed choices.
-tremendous revenues from drug taxes could be used to benefit all citizens.
-purity and safety controls could be implemented
-expands the number of distributors (increasing competition and reducing prices)
-drugs would be safer
- drug-related crimes would be reduced
-production and distribution of previously controlled substances would be taken out of the hands of the underworld.
-greater availability of drugs would not increase demand, points to countries where drugs have been decriminalized.
What is decriminalization?
-entails removing state penalties for certain drugs
-promotes a medical rather than criminal approach to drug use that encourages users to seek treatment and adopt preventive practices.
Describe Portugal's decriminalization?
-first European country to officially abolish all criminal penalties for personal possession of drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine.
-decriminalization reduced new cases of HIV infections, decreased drug use among Portuguese teens, and doubled the number of people seeking treatment for drug addiction.
Opponents of legalization?
-It would be construed as government approval of drug use.
-Drug experimentation and abuse would increase.
-Drug trafficking and black markets would still flourish because all drugs would not be decriminalized.
-Would also require an extensive and costly bureaucracy to regulate the manufacture, sale, and distribution of drugs.
-The position that drug use is an individual's right cannot guarantee that others will not be harmed.
-It is illogical to assume that a greater availability of drugs will translate into a safer society.
What are some state initiatives in reducing drug abuse?
-statewide referendums concern cost-effectiveness of government policies.
-Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act of 2009 (Proposition 36), California and other states now require that nonviolent first- and second-time minor drug offenders receive treatment, including job training, therapy, literacy education, and family counseling rather than jail time.
-drug policy reforms: Connecticut passed overdose prevention legislation like New Mexico and Texas; Kansas passed legislation providing for treatment instead of incarceration for first-time drug offenders; Illinois passed legislation allowing sale of sterile syringes without a prescription.
-active drug policy reform organizations: A Better Way Foundation in Connecticut is a nonprofit organization dedicated to shifting current drug policy from a paradigm that prioritizes incarceration to one that prioritizes public health, treatment, and public safety.
Which president supported federally funded needle exchange programs?
What are the five consequences of drug use?
-cost to family, relationship between drugs and crime, economic costs, health costs, illegal drug production
What value do the oceans have in moderating climate change?
what are the 8 parts of the eye ?
What kind of energy conversions takes place during photosynthesis?
True or False: An airplane is an acrobatic loop-the-loop maneuver is in dynamic equilibrium if the speed is constant
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