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Who worked on classical conditioning?


Another term for conditioned/unconditioned

Instrumental Learning

Another name for Skinner's operant conditioning

Respondent Conditioning

Another name for Pavlov's reflexes


What increases target behavior?

Positive Reinforcer

Pleasant stimulus that comes after a behavior and raises chance that behavior will be repeated (ex. give rat sugar when it presses lever)

Negative Reinforcer

Unpleasant stimulus that comes after a behavior and raises chance that behavior will be repeated (ex. play loud noise until rat presses lever)


What kind of reinforcer is a neutral stimulus (ex. plastic token or money) which becomes a reinforcer by association (it can be exchanged for known reinforcers)?

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)

Positively reinforce someone for doing a healthy alternative behavior - will reduce the bad behavior without needing punishment


What decreases target behavior?

Positive Punishment

Unpleasant stimulus comes after behavior and raises chance behavior will stop (ex. hit a child after they swear)

Negative Punishment

Pleasant stimulus is removed after a behavior and raises chance behavior will stop (ex. take away child's toy when they have a tantrum)


What happens when you keep giving the CS without the US (after US/CS pairing has occurred)?

.5 second

Ideal time between CS and US

Delayed Conditioning

CS begins first and overlaps US

Trace Conditioning

CS begins first and does not overlap with US

Backward Conditioning

US comes before the CS - usually doesn't work

Stimulus Generalization

A stimulus similar to the CS produces the same reaction - also called second order conditioning; example green light vs. red light

Stimulus Discrimination

Learning occurs with only a very specific stimulus

Experimental Neurosis

Emotional disturbance resulting from trying to get someone to differentiate between almost identical stimuli


What kind of conditioning is this:
US = meat powder
UR = salivation
CS = bell
Salivation becomes a CR after being linked with the bell

John Watson

Who said "If you can't observe it, it doesn't exist" and created phobic response in Little Albert after pairing rat with loud noise.

Reciprocal Inhibition

Can't do two mutually exclusive events at same time. Example: can't feel relaxed and anxious.

Systematic Desensitization

Decondition a phobia using a fear hierarchy and reciprocal inhibition


Teaching a different response to a stimulus - ex. teach someone to relax rather than panic when facing scary situation

Aversive Counterconditioning

- stimulus applied when you make a - response (ex. drug that makes you nauseous when you drink alcohol)


Stimulus that causes anxiety is continuously presented until response is unlearned or you become too tired to respond


Which kind of conditioning tries to shape behavior through +/- reinforcement and punishment?


What kind of reinforcement schedule gives reinforcement immediately after each response?


What kind of reinforcement schedule does not give reinforcement after each response?


Behavior modification is based on ______, while behavior therapy is based on ______.

Neal Miller

Who did the first experiments that showed animals could be conditioned to control automatic body processes?

Mary Cover Jones

Who showed learning could be a treatment for a phobia, was the mother of behavior therapy, and got rid of Peter's rabbit phobia

HIgher Order Conditioning

A new stimulus is paired with CS and takes on the power of the CS - ex. add a light to the bell in Pavlov's experiment, then light alone causes salivation

Premack Principle

Best reinforcer is what client likes to do - use a preferred behavior to reinforce a non-preferred behavior - ex. finish essay before going shopping

Variable Ratio

Which type of reinforcement schedule is the hardest to extinguish?

Subjective Units of Distress Scale

SUDS - used by Wolpe with systematic desensitization - units go from 1-100

Stages of Systematic Desensitization

Relaxation training
Make anxiety hierarchy
Desensitize in imagination
Desensitize in vivo (real life)

Andrew Salter

Father of behavior therapy, conditioned reflex therapy, used hypnosis and assertiveness training

Implosion Therapy

Client imagines hypothetical situation that would cause extreme anxiety in order to get desensitized


In Pavlov's experiments, what was the US?


In Pavlov's experiments, what was the CS?

Simultaneous Conditioning

US and CS are presented at the same time


Which type of classical conditioning is most effective?

Spontaneous Recovery

What do you call it when a previous CS/CR connection is reestablished, proving that learning is never totally lost or forgotten?

John Wolpe

Who came up with reciprocal inhibition and developed systematic desensitization?

Law of Effect

Thorndike's idea that when a S is accompanied by R and then there's a satisfying reward, a connection is made and the R is repeated (and vice versa) - basis for Skinner


Who is associated with operant conditioning (also known as instrumental learning)?


What kind of reinforcer satisfies a basic need such as food or rest?

Fixed Ratio

What kind of reinforcement schedule gives reinforcement every nth time?

Variable Ratio

What kind of reinforcement schedule gives reinforcement every nth time on average (like a slot machine)?

Fixed Interval

What kind of reinforcement schedule gives reinforcement after a fixed period of time such as every hour?

Variable Interval

What kind of reinforcement schedule gives reinforcement at unpredictable time intervals such as a pop quiz?


What letter is sometimes used to refer to baseline behavior?


Giving your child a timeout is an example of what?

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