NCE Classical/Operant Conditioning

Who worked on classical conditioning?
Another term for conditioned/unconditioned
Instrumental Learning
Another name for Skinner's operant conditioning
Respondent Conditioning
Another name for Pavlov's reflexes
What increases target behavior?
Positive Reinforcer
Pleasant stimulus that comes after a behavior and raises chance that behavior will be repeated (ex. give rat sugar when it presses lever)
Negative Reinforcer
Unpleasant stimulus that comes after a behavior and raises chance that behavior will be repeated (ex. play loud noise until rat presses lever)
What kind of reinforcer is a neutral stimulus (ex. plastic token or money) which becomes a reinforcer by association (it can be exchanged for known reinforcers)?
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
Positively reinforce someone for doing a healthy alternative behavior - will reduce the bad behavior without needing punishment
What decreases target behavior?
Positive Punishment
Unpleasant stimulus comes after behavior and raises chance behavior will stop (ex. hit a child after they swear)
Negative Punishment
Pleasant stimulus is removed after a behavior and raises chance behavior will stop (ex. take away child's toy when they have a tantrum)
What happens when you keep giving the CS without the US (after US/CS pairing has occurred)?
.5 second
Ideal time between CS and US
Delayed Conditioning
CS begins first and overlaps US
Trace Conditioning
CS begins first and does not overlap with US
Backward Conditioning
US comes before the CS - usually doesn't work
Stimulus Generalization
A stimulus similar to the CS produces the same reaction - also called second order conditioning; example green light vs. red light
Stimulus Discrimination
Learning occurs with only a very specific stimulus
Experimental Neurosis
Emotional disturbance resulting from trying to get someone to differentiate between almost identical stimuli
What kind of conditioning is this:
US = meat powder
UR = salivation
CS = bell
Salivation becomes a CR after being linked with the bell
John Watson
Who said "If you can't observe it, it doesn't exist" and created phobic response in Little Albert after pairing rat with loud noise.
Reciprocal Inhibition
Can't do two mutually exclusive events at same time. Example: can't feel relaxed and anxious.
Systematic Desensitization
Decondition a phobia using a fear hierarchy and reciprocal inhibition
Teaching a different response to a stimulus - ex. teach someone to relax rather than panic when facing scary situation
Aversive Counterconditioning
- stimulus applied when you make a - response (ex. drug that makes you nauseous when you drink alcohol)
Stimulus that causes anxiety is continuously presented until response is unlearned or you become too tired to respond
Which kind of conditioning tries to shape behavior through +/- reinforcement and punishment?
What kind of reinforcement schedule gives reinforcement immediately after each response?
What kind of reinforcement schedule does not give reinforcement after each response?
Behavior modification is based on ______, while behavior therapy is based on ______.
Neal Miller
Who did the first experiments that showed animals could be conditioned to control automatic body processes?
Mary Cover Jones
Who showed learning could be a treatment for a phobia, was the mother of behavior therapy, and got rid of Peter's rabbit phobia
HIgher Order Conditioning
A new stimulus is paired with CS and takes on the power of the CS - ex. add a light to the bell in Pavlov's experiment, then light alone causes salivation
Premack Principle
Best reinforcer is what client likes to do - use a preferred behavior to reinforce a non-preferred behavior - ex. finish essay before going shopping
Variable Ratio
Which type of reinforcement schedule is the hardest to extinguish?
Subjective Units of Distress Scale
SUDS - used by Wolpe with systematic desensitization - units go from 1-100
Stages of Systematic Desensitization
Relaxation training
Make anxiety hierarchy
Desensitize in imagination
Desensitize in vivo (real life)
Andrew Salter
Father of behavior therapy, conditioned reflex therapy, used hypnosis and assertiveness training
Implosion Therapy
Client imagines hypothetical situation that would cause extreme anxiety in order to get desensitized
In Pavlov's experiments, what was the US?
In Pavlov's experiments, what was the CS?
Simultaneous Conditioning
US and CS are presented at the same time
Which type of classical conditioning is most effective?
Spontaneous Recovery
What do you call it when a previous CS/CR connection is reestablished, proving that learning is never totally lost or forgotten?
John Wolpe
Who came up with reciprocal inhibition and developed systematic desensitization?
Law of Effect
Thorndike's idea that when a S is accompanied by R and then there's a satisfying reward, a connection is made and the R is repeated (and vice versa) - basis for Skinner
Who is associated with operant conditioning (also known as instrumental learning)?
What kind of reinforcer satisfies a basic need such as food or rest?
Fixed Ratio
What kind of reinforcement schedule gives reinforcement every nth time?
Variable Ratio
What kind of reinforcement schedule gives reinforcement every nth time on average (like a slot machine)?
Fixed Interval
What kind of reinforcement schedule gives reinforcement after a fixed period of time such as every hour?
Variable Interval
What kind of reinforcement schedule gives reinforcement at unpredictable time intervals such as a pop quiz?
What letter is sometimes used to refer to baseline behavior?
Giving your child a timeout is an example of what?