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COMD 5200 Unit 1 Chapter 1 - Based on Krista's Lecture
USU Fall 2013
Terms in this set (45)
What is ASHA'S definition of language disorders?
Impairment in comprehension and/or use of a spoken, written, and/or other symbol system
What are the 3 pillars of language that a language disorder may include according to ASHA
What are the components of form? (PMS)
Syntax: how we combine words to make sentences, sentence structure.
Morphology: root words, prefixes & suffixes. Change word and make derivations of the word changing meaning.
Phonology: Sound system, sounds give meaning to language. Ex: /s/ at the end of a word indicating plural.
What error of form tends to be a hallmark of children with language disorders and why?
a) Children don't lack all grammatical understanding.
b) Children often don't realize rules need to be applied all the time.
c) Not uncommon for a child to use plural /s/ selectively not applying rule broadly. See endings as optional or don't use forms at all.
What is the component of Content?
Semantics: Deals with a child vocabulary and word choice. A hallmark of kids with language disorders.
a) Most children with language disorders have impoverished vocabularies.
b) Difficult time learning new words, needing multiple exposures of new words prior to understanding and application of word.
c) Struggle with words with multiple meaning or abstract words.
________ is the component of "use"?
Pragmatics: Social communication of language.
Don't just use grammatical rules to engage others and interact with the world around us.
1) Eye contact
2) Topic initiation
3) Topic maintenance
4) Turn taking
Children need to have difficulty in form, content and use in order for them to be diagnosed with a language disorder?
False, a child's area of difficulty can range from one or two areas of difficulty to all areas of difficulty when diagnosed with a language disorder.
Discuss some areas a child with a language disorder may have difficulty.
1) A child unable to understand written communication, can't read.
2) Talks but struggles to understand what is told to him beyond a single utterance.
3) Understand spoken words and use words to express themselves but may struggle with fully comprehending the verbal language that is used.
4) Don't understand figurative language used which could yield a specific type of language disorder dealing with pragmatics.
What are two language disorder views?
1) Naturalist Perspective
2) Normative Perspective
What are some hallmarks of the naturalist perspective?
Identification focused on results of testing.
-Focuses on deviation from the norm such as low scores on a standardized assessment
a) compares a child's individual performance on a given test to other children his age.
b) Low score would ID child as below norm or average, would flag child as having a language disorder.
What are some hallmarks of the normative perspective?
-Focuses is on impact of the impairment on day to day functioning, not standard scores
-Takes into values and expectations of society
- Average people notice a difference
Which perspective naturalist or normative is widely used among SLPs?
a) Regularly look at scares on standardized tests to find kids
b) Consider impact on day-to-day communication
How do we determine if a language disorder exists?
Normative and naturalist perspectives used in distinguishing if a child has a disorder or not.
You can expect to see a child with higher language skills than their cognition level?
Generally a child's language skills will not be higher than their cognition level. An exception is children with William's Syndrome.
What is chronological age?
a. Actual age
b. Used most frequently
What is mental age?
a. Age equivalent based on test
b. Good reference point because we know cognition and language go hand in hand.
What are two reference points that can be used when looking at language disorders?
1) Chronological Age
2) Mental Age
What problems did Lahey find with using mental age?
-Cognitive tests that derive mental age and language tests were not meant to be compared
a) Comparing 2 is not psychometrically sound.
-Mental age is an age equivalent score which is not appropriate measure to determine impairment
-Seldom is cognitive testing "pure"
a) Cognition and language are intertwined it is very hard to construct a cognitive test that is not heavily biased in language ability.
b) Giving a cognitive test that is dependent upon language ability to a child with a language disorder is unfair because they are at a disadvantage.
ASHA engourages the use of "cognitive-referencing?"
What can an SLP use mental age for when determining if a language disorder exists?
a) Gives us a better idea of child's whole abilities & whole self
b) set goals & determining appropriate goals for intervention.
c) conduct therapy.
What makes a standardized test "standard"?
a) Standard in administration, given the same way
b) Standard in acceptable responses
c) Most important feature, the clincher: given to large number of children whose scores provide normative data for average performance of children that age based on bell curve
d) Allows comparisons from standardized scores with what is considered normal
e) Children outside normal rage ID'd
On the bell curve what does the peak represent?
What percentage of kids will be to the left and right of the bell curve?
Children scoring in the center of the bell curve will reflect...
Age appropriate abilities: a range of abilities in the center of bell curve.
What would you know about children falling to the right or left of the bell curve?
To the right are above average and far left is below average.
What is the cut off score suggested by Colin Norbury in determining a disorder?
Standard score of 80
-1.25 standard deviations below the mean
The above could look like 3 different scores used to pin-point a language disorder.
Although scores are different scales they bring you back to generally the same area on the bell curve.
What are some considerations when reviewing a standardized test?
Limited tests with adequate validity, sampling size, etc. for all language aspects for all ages
a) Sampling size could result in a skewed distribution of the data & distribution will not be congruent with the bell curve.
b) True sense of language abilities for all aspects, for all cultures, for all age groups.
Many linguistically and culturally biased
a) Difficult to norm a test given to mono-language children living in NY.
b) A bilingual child taking a normed test from NY may not be the best judgment call for SLP. Background of children is too different.
Can the score from one standardized test indicate the true abilities of the test taker?
No, we need to look beyond just an isolated number on a standardized test to determine a language disorder.
Also need to consider how chlld's abilities are impacting their daily life combining naturalist & normative perspectives.
What is the etiology of a language disorder?
Seldom can we determine why a language disorder exists.
What are some factors contributing to a language disorder?
Does run in families
Are there differences in the brain found in individuals with language disorders?
a) Slight differences in the structure & function of the brain
b) Nothing definite about findings so there is no sole cause.
Environmental factors like Socio-economic status, mother's education, and bilingual households contribute to language disorders.
Are correlated to a language disorder; however, studies show that language is so robust typically children do just fine in language development. Alone, do not account for DLD, but they do often correlate.
Bilingual households can cause a child to have a language disorder?
False, children need a rich language environment to develop. A language disorder is not caused by exposure to a second language.
Describe the Auditory Processing Deficits Theory and beliefs and problem with theory.
a) Children do not produce language successfully because the child is not able to hear language correctly.
Problem: Auditory training should correct the problem if AP was a sole cause of DLD.
-Auditory training: improves discrimination ability but doesn't extend to other aspects of language like literacy.
- Again if AP were the only cause of DLD then all aspect of language, including literacy should improve with AP training.
Describe the Procedural Deficits Theory beliefs and problem with theory.
(rule-based learning, grammar component) versus declarative memory (knowledge-based learning, such as vocabulary). When it comes to grammar rules a struggle is seen.
Problem: Theory could explain why we have so many children with deficits in the form of language, the syntactic morphology piece.
a) Still doesn't explain why we have so many kids with poor vocabularies, frequently seen.
Describe the Limited Processing Capacity Theory.
When demands get too high, too much input, capacity to recall decrease.
Ex: A lot to process, your ability to recall and use info from longer sentences is lower than ability to recall and use info given in a shorter sentence. The shorter sentence has greater recall the longer sentence is more difficult to recall.
A child that may experience two or more disorders at the same time.
All language disorders are a result of a "stand-alone" diagnoses.
Name some of the medical diagnoses that may contribute to a language disorder.
a) Down's Syndrome
b) Autism Spectrum Disorders
c) Williams Syndrome
Children with disorders often have DLD in varying degrees. No child with the same diagnosis is the same.
Why can't an SLP use a cookie cutter approach to target goals and therapy?
a) Needs of child vary too much.
b) Being familiar with disorders, particularly as they relate to communication abilities is important for awareness knowledge of certain characteristics & successful approaches others have used in the past.
c) Focus on the individual child strengths and weaknesses when determining therapy approach and targets.
What are some of the features exhibited in a child with an Autism Spectrum disorder?
1) Stereotyped phrases:
a) Repeat phrases over again that are memorized
b) Don't reflect language abilities.
2) Unusual intonation, don't stress words or phrases in an expected way.
3) Reversing of pronouns
4) Idiosyncratic vocabulary - "Dinosaur" but won't use words like "mama" that are familiar.
5) Echolalia, repeat questions back to speaker but don't give answer.
a) Research has shown that echolalia occurs when a response is unkown thus they just repeat what is heard.
c. Nonresponsive to others' speech
6) Hearing, often don't respond to name or when spoken to.
i. Stems from lack of interest in social interaction instead of hearing loss.
ii. Hearing should be screened but often there is no hearing loss just no response.
7) Poor pragmatic skills
a. Lack eye contact, purposeful communication to engage others.
b. May continue on with their own conversation not allowing for conversational turn taking.
Etiology dictates the intervention an SLP takes.
False, often the cause is unknown.
What must an SLP look at when creating a communication profile for intervention?
Must look at each child's strengths and weaknesses and create a profile of communication skills for intervention.
What is it important that a SLP understand about a child?
Understand a child's strengths, and weaknesses.
What model should an SLP follow when treating a child with a language disorder?
Follow the developmental model:
a) Even if children are behind they tend to acquire language in the same sequence of typically developing children.
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