42 terms

Academic Vocabulary

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Extended Metaphor
a metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.
Revision
The process of rereading a text and making changes (in content, organization, sentence structures, and
word choice) to improve it.
Refute
To discredit an argument, particularly a counterargument
Audience
One's listener or readership; those to whom a speech or piece of writing is addressed.
Connotative
the nonliteral, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning. Connotations may
involve ideas, emotions, or attitudes.
Context
the entire situation in which a piece of writing takes place, including the writer's purpose(s) for
writing; the intended audience; the time and place of writing; the institutional, social, personal, and other influences
on the piece of writing (whether it's, for instance, online or on paper, in handwriting or print); and the writer's
attitude toward the subject and the audience.
Denotative
the strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color
Figurative
The definition of figurative is something that is not to be interpreted literally, but that instead uses a
symbol or a likeness; metaphoric; Based on or making use of figures of speech; metaphorical: figurative language.
Inference
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented. When a multiplechoice question
asks for an inference to be drawn from a passage, the most direct, most reasonable inference is the safest answer
choice. If an inference is implausible, it's unlikely to be the correct answer. Note that if the answer choice is directly
stated, it is not inferred and is wrong. As we have seen in the multiplechoice selections that we have been trying,
you must be careful to note the connotation—negative or positive—of the choices
Informational
definite knowledge acquired or supplied about something or somebody
Literary
concerning the writing, study, or content of literature, especially of the kind valued for quality of form
Purpose
the goal the speaker wants to achieve; the goal of an argument. Purposes include entertaining,
informing, convincing, exploring, and deciding, among others
Text Structure
The term "text structure" refers to how information is organized in a passage. The structure of
a text can change multiple times in a work and even within a paragraph.
Bias
Prejudice or predisposition toward one side of a subject or issue
Claim
a position a writer will argue or prove; also called assertion, proposition or thesis. A claim states the
argument's main idea or position. The claim differs from a topic or subject in that a claim has to be arguable.
Counterclaim
an argument that disagrees with the author's claim or thesis
Evidence
material offered to support an argument
Qualification
a statement that limits or restricts some claim in meaning, scope, or strength; words or phrases
that limit the scope of a claim, making it less absolute: usually, in a few cases, under these circumstances, etc
Credibility
reliable, trustworthy, accurate
Ethos
an ethical appeal to persuade, including the credibility of the author of the text
Evaluate
to judge or calculate the quality, importance, amount, or value of something
Integrate
unify
Logos
a logical appeal to persuade
Pathos
an emotional appeal to persuade
Point of View
the way in which an author chooses to present an essay, story or other piece of writing:
Firstperson narrator, Thirdperson limited, Thirdperson omniscient.
M. Rhetoric
from the Greek for "orator," this term describes the principles governing the art of writing effectively,
eloquently, and persuasively
Tone
Tone is the attitude a writer takes toward a subject. Unlike mood, which refers to the emotional response
of the reader to a work, tone reflects the feelings of the writer. The writer's choice of words and details helps
establish the tone, which might be serious, humorous, sarcastic, playful, ironic, bitter, or objective
Anti-hero
A central character in a work of literature ; He lacks traditional heroic qualities such as
courage, physical prowess, and fortitude; Antiheroes are usually flawed or dominated by negative traits or
questionable behavior; The term "antihero" does not, however, mean that the central character stands in opposition to an actual hero in the story or novel. Rather, it means that the central character stands in
opposition to the traditional idea of a hero; Antiheroes typically distrust conventional values and are
unable to commit themselves to any ideals; They generally feel helpless in a world over which they have
no control. Antiheroes usually accept, and often celebrate, their positions as social outcasts.
Bildungsroman
a story that shows the growth and maturation of the main character
Characterization
tells the audience what the personality of the character is
● Direct the process by which the personality of a fictitious character is revealed by the use of
descriptive adjectives, phrases, or epithets.
● Indirect is the process by which the writer shows the character's personality through his/her speech,
actions and appearance.
Foreshadowing
a literary device in which a writer gives an advance hint of what is to come later in the
story.
Picaresque
of or relating to an episodic style of fiction dealing with the adventures of a rough and
dishonest but appealing hero
Point of View
how a story is told
● First person is a narrative mode where a story is narrated by one character at a time, speaking for and
about themselves.
● Third person a form of storytelling in which a narrator relates all action in third person, using third
person pronouns such as "he" or "she." Third person point of view may be omniscient or limited.
● Limited narrator is able to see into the mind of a single character
● Objective is a rare form of first person is the first person omniscient, in which the narrator is a
character in the story, but also knows the thoughts and feelings of all the other characters
● Omniscient narrator knows everything and therefore can reveal any manner of things about the plot,
characters, motivations and thoughts or feelings of characters, but is not a character in the story.
Reliability of a Narrator
A main characteristic of a reliable narrator is his or her proximity in values to
the implied author
Unreliable Narrator
A storyteller whose account of the events in a story cannot be trusted because he may
not be honest, objective, or perceptive
Theme
A central idea or statement that unifies and controls an entire literary work. The theme can take
the form of a brief and meaningful insight or a comprehensive vision of life. A theme is the author's way of
communicating and sharing ideas, perceptions, and feelings with readers, and it may be directly stated in
the book, or it may only be implied.
Framed Narrative
: The result of inserting one or more small stories within the body of a larger story that
encompasses the smaller ones. Often this term is used interchangeably with both the literary technique and
the larger story itself that contains the smaller ones, which are called pericopes, "framed narratives" or
"embedded narratives
Stream of consciousness
A technique that records the multifarious thoughts and feelings of a character
without regard to logical argument or narrative sequence. The writer attempts by the stream of consciousness to reflect all the forces, external and internal, influencing the psychology of a character at a
single moment
Satire
Writing that ridicules human weaknesses or faults in order to bring about social reform
Parody
The imitation of a work of literature or art for amusement or satirical purposes
Caricature
A device of satire that may be a picture, description, or imitation of a person or thing in
which certain striking characteristics are exaggerated in order to create a comic or grotesque effect
Double Entendre
A figure of speech in which a word or phrase can be understood in two ways,
especially when one meaning is risqué.