105 terms

AP Human Geography Unit 5: Agriculture

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Primary Sector (agriculture)
part of the economy that draws raw material from natural environment
Secondary Sector (industry)
part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods; grows quickly as societies industrialize
Tertiary Sector (services)
part of the economy that involves services rather than goods
post-industrial societies
countries where most people are no longer employed in industry
Quaternary Sector
subset of the tertiary sector; includes service jobs concerned with research and development, management and administration, and processing and disseminating information
Quinary Sector
subset of the quaternary sector; includes jobs with the highest level of decision-making in a society
countries with large % of primary
stage 2 countries; Nigeria, Liberia, Rwanda, Niger, Haiti, Afghanistan
countries with large % of secondary
late stage 2, stage 3 countries; China
countries with large % of tertiary
late stage 3 countries; Canada, Russia, UK, USA, Mexico, Germany, Japan, New Zealand
agriculture
deliberate tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
religious impact
ways land is distributed and used for food production are determined by culture - just like consumption of food from crops and animals and function of livestock
hunters and gatherers
result = dependent on abundance of food; capture and kill animals, learn which plants/fruits were edible; migrated: e. africa, australia, middle east, europe, asia
neolithic revolution
communities settled 8000 BCE,; based on successful cultivation of crops and domestication of animals
agricultural hearths
places farming practices diffused from across the surface of the earth
neolithic revolution changes
increase in reliable food supplies, rapid increase in total human population, job specialization, widening of gender differences (patriarchal systems) and development of distinction between settled people and nomads
patriarchal systems
male-dominant society, men hold power
matriarchal system
female-dominant society, women hold power
vegetative planting
according to carl sauer, earliest form of cultivation - direct cloning of existing plants (cutting stems and dividing roots)
vegetative hearths
South East Asia (north to China, east to Japan, west to India)
West Africa & N.W. South America (to central america and east sides of south america)
seed agriculture
production of plants through annual planting of seeds
seed hearths
W. India, N. China, Ethiopia [e. hem]
S. Mexico, N. Peru [w. hem]
animal domestication
...
hearths
...
innovation in seed agriculture
irrigation, plowing, fencing, terraces to level fields, fertlizing with animal waste, weeding to support crops
columbian exchange
started late 15 and 16 century, products carried both ways across atlantic and pacific ocean
eastern hemisphere items
rice, olives, grapes, horses, cattle
western hemisphere items
tomatoes, pineapple, corn
second agricultural revolution
began in W. Europe during 1600s, promoted higher yields per acre per farmer; made it possible to feed rapidly growing cities; increase use of fertilizer, improved collars
enclosure
fencing or hedging large blocks of land for experiments with new techniques of farming; early 1700s
crop rotation
controll nutrients in the soil by changing new vegetation annually
seed drill
made planting seeds more effecient
how the second agricultural revolution lead to the industrial revolution
better nutrition boosted population which created labor (necessary component)
subsistence agriculture
most prevalent in LDCs,, production of only enough food to feed the farmer's family
commercial agriculture
production of food surpluses, most crops destined for sale to people outside the farmer's family
agribusiness
system of commercial farming found in more developed countries
% of farmers (LDC v MDC)
more in LDCs (60%) than MDCs (2%)
use of machinery impact
replace work done with hand tools and animal power; tractor, planters, farm machines
scientific advances
herbicides, ferilizers; boost crop yields and health of animals
farm size (LDC v MDC)
commercial farmers have a larger amount of land than subsistence
intensive subsistence
large amount of output per acre through concentrated farming; most work done by hand; requires great deal of time and attention but under ideal conditions can provide large amounts of food per unit of land
ex. wet rice in east and south asia
wet or lowland rice
dominant in east and south asia; wet rice planted on dry land in a nursery, moved as seedlings to a flooded field to promote growth
shifting cultivation
"slash and burth"; primarily in rain forest zones of central and south america, west africa, eastern and central asia and much of southern china and southeast asia; extensive type of subsistence
intertillage
growing of various types of crops
pastoral nomadism
moving from one place to another based on need for pasture for the animals; extensive
nomadism
practice of moving frequently from one place to the other
extensive subsistence agriculture
involve large areas of land and minimal labor per land unit
intensive subsistence agriculture
small land plots through great amounts of labor; yields per unit and area and population densities are both high
commercial agricutlture
farmers and ranchers sell all their output for money and buy their families' food at stores
mixed crop and livestock farming
most common form of commercial agriculture; farmers grow crops and raise livestock on the same land spread, crops fed to animals rather than to people; extensive
crop rotation
each field planted on a planned cycle
cereal grains
oats, wheat, rye, barley
dairy farming
farms close to market bc the product will spoil easily; disadvantages: expense of feeding cows in the winter; farmers must purchas all feed; labor intensive
milkshed
a ring of milk production around a major city
grain farming
Canada, Australia, Argentina, France, UK; lots of mechanism, labor concentrated in planting and harvesting seasons; world's leading export crop
winter wheat area
Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma - planted in the autumn, ripens in the summer
spring wheat area
Dakota, Montana, Palouse region of Washington state - winters too severe for winter wheat
world's breadbasket
prairies of North America
livestock ranching
practiced in arid or semi-arid regions, commercial grazing of livestock; most land is leased from the government, not much anymore
pampas
prairies of argentina, southern brazil and uruguay
mediterranean agriculture
exists only in the lands that border mediterranean sea, california, chile, southwest South Africa and southwest Australia - border seas and west coasts of continents; crop production for human consumption; horticulture is the base; major crops: olives, grapes, fruits, vegetables, olive oil, wine
horticulture
growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
commercial gardening and fruit farming
predominates southeast US; truck farming; apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, mushrooms, tomatoes mainly sold processed to consumers; rely on machinery and fertilizers, labor only when they hire migrant farm workers
truck farming
same as commercial gardening and fruit farming
plantation farming
a farm that specializes in one or two crops, raised for export to high-consumption developed countries, persist in poorer countries, owners import workers and provide shelter for them; found in latin america, africa and asia
cash crops
crops raised to make money for their owners; plantation farming
factors determining what to grow?
subsistence- land and climate
commercial- access to markets, competition from other farmers and government regulations and subsidies
Von Thunen's Model
close to far from market- market gardening and dairy, forest, field crops, animal grazing;
model for land use in early 18 century; spatial layout of Rostock
marketing gardening and dairy
closest to market because products are perishable; and expensive to deliver
forest
towns surrounded by belts of forests > wood and fuel for construction; trees are bulky and hard to transport
field crops
less perishable items; wheat and other grains; rotated from one year to another
animal grazing
outermost ring; required lots of space; beyond this was unprofitable bc transportation costs too high
assumptions by Von Thunen
a flat terrain with uniform soils and no significant barriers to transportation to market.
location theory
a general but logical attempt to explain how an economic activity is related to the land space where goods are produced
dispersed settlement pattern
areas of extensive agriculture practices and when machinery makes large intensive cultivaion areas possible; individual farmhouses lying quite far apart
nucleated settlement pattern
villages located quite close together with relatively small surrounding fields; land use intense
hamlets
villages or small clusters of buildings
factors determining housing
geography; lifestyles; until recently, physical environment for materials; rural vs. urban
wood
originated in northern Europe, spread to north America (when europeans settled there); not usually used for primary building, used for framing and trimming instead; made primarily of wood = scandinavia through russia
brick
oven-baked blocks of cement; wet mud mixed with straw in M.E., N China, SW USA, Mexico ; major element of modern construction across the world
stone
usually built with cement mortar, but from Andes Mountains don't need mortar
wattle
pooles and sticks woven tightly together and covered with mud; SE Asia, Amazonian river basin
village
a small numer of people who live in a cluster of houses in a rural area; canada = up to 1000 ppl; USA = up to 2500 ppl; majority of people in a primary economic sector job
round village
most traditional style found in e. africa and parts of europe; features houses that circle around a central corral for animals with fields extending outside the ring of houses; developed to protect domesticated animals
walled village
developed in ancient days to protect villagers from attack
grid village
more modern villages laid out in straight street pattern that's run in parallel and perpendicular lines
linear village
follow major roads, often single thoroughfare limited with houses, businesses and public buildings
cluster village
may have had more than one major raod that they build along; also have housing that clusters around large public buildings
primogeniture
all property passes to the eldest son
rectangular survey system
us gov't used this to encourage settlers to disperse evenly within interior farmlands; drawn in grids
metes and bounds
natural features are used to mark irregular parcels of land
long-lot survey system
divides land into narrow parcels that extend from rivers, roads or canals; more french-styled
mercanitlism
private companies under charter from the government carrying out trade; main goal is to benefit mother country by trading goods to accumulate precious metals
specialization
growing of specialized crops because they seem to be most profitable
agribusiness
spreading to developing countries where small-size farmers are linking with foreign sources
third agricultural revolution
began in mid-20th century; still going on today in the form of industrial revolution;
industrail agriculture
modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish adn crops; innovation in agricultural machinery and methods, genetic technology, techniques for achieving economies of scale production; methods widespread in developed nations
biotechnology
the use of genetically altered crops in agriculture and DNA manipulation in lviestock in order to increase production
green revolution
collection of new agricultural techniques; use of new higher-yield seeds and expanded use of fertilizers;
impact of green revolution
famine for ppl in sub-saharan africa = lack of resources to buy seed, fertilizer and machinery + population growth; land overgrazed by animals; soils exhausted from overplanting; desertificiation;
desertification
land becoming desert; because of overgrazing and over planting; and trees being cut
environmental impacts of modern agriculture
erosioin; changes in the organic content of soil, depletion of natural vegetation; presense of chemical in soils and groundwater
green revolution good/bad?
good: oupaces population growth; nitrogen based fertilizers; new food sources; reducing dependency on imports; increased crop yields; increased productivity of cash crops
bad: poor countries cannot afford; over fishing; irrigation led to groundwater depletion; raising one type of crop means no variety for balanced diet
organic agriculture
growing of crops/animals without fertilizers and pesticides
sustainable agriculture
attempts to integrate plant and animal production practices that will protect the ecosystem in the long term; growing peanuts and alfafa for natural fertilizers, producing nitrogen atificially, long term crop rotation, drip irrigation,
future food supply
to produce adequete food supplies; expansion of agricultural land, increase in land productivity, identification of new fod sources, improved distribution of foods