34 terms

Miller Ch 17 Air and Air pollution

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troposphere
..., the lowest layer of the atmosphere
stratosphere
12 to 50 km, Ozone held here, absorbs UV radiation
mesosphere
50 to 80 km, most meteorites burn up here
3rd layer of the atmosphere
thermosphere
The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases
tropopause
The boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
stratopause
the transition between the stratosphere and the mesosphere
mesopause
the transition between the mesosphere and the thermosphere
photochemical ozone
what is the surface ozone called?
stratospheric ozone
good ozone, produces oxygen molecules to interact with UV radiation and prevent 95% of it from reaching the surface
primary pollutants
pollutants that are released directly into the lower atmosphere
secondary pollutants
pollutants that form from chemical reactions that occur when primary pollutants come in contact with other primary pollutants or with naturally occuring substances, such as water vapor.
carbon monoxide
Colorless, odorless, poisounous gas produced by the combustion of of carbon or organic fuels.
nitrogen dioxide
a highly poisonous brown gas (NO2)
sulfur dioxide
Created naturally by volanoes. Human source is mainly from the burning of coal. Creates respiratory problems in humans and acid rain in the environment
SPM
Suspended Particulate Matter. Small dust. Consists of a variety of solid particles and liquid droplets.
ozone
A form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of the usual two.
lead
A child is brought to the emergency room. Initial examination documents the following clinical manifestations: tissue ischemia, anemia, and an apparent decrease in normal growth rate. Which of the following poisons would most likely be the cause?
photochemical smog
A brownish haze that is a mixture of ozone and other chemicals, formed when pollutants react with each other in the presence of sunlight
UV radiation
damaging rays from the sun, blocked by ozone
photochemical oxidants
class of air pollutants formed as a result of sunlight acting on compounds such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide
industrial smog
smog resulting from emissions from industry and other sources of gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels.
Consists mostly of sulfur dioxide, suspended droplets of sulfuric acid (formed from some of the sulfur dioxide) and a variety of suspended solid particles and droplets.
subsidence temperature inversion
Inversion of normal air temperature layers when a large mass of warm air moves into a region at a high altitude and floats over a mass of colder air near the ground. This keeps the air over a city stagnant and prevents vertical mixing and dispersion of air pollutants.
radiation temperature inversion
increase depends of thermal source and treatment area, intensity of the radiation, distance between source and treatment tissues, and angle of radiation to the treament tissue
acid deposition
Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid-and return to Earth's surface
radon
A gas that arises from the earth where radioactive materials are present.
asbestos
A fibrous incombustible mineral known to cause fibrosis and scarring in the lungs. Also a known carcinogenic material (lung cancer, mesothelioma).
cilia
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane help clear the lungs
lung cancer
Malignancy of pulmonary tissue
asthma
A chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing.
chronic bronchitis
A type of COPD defined as hypersecretion of mucus sufficient to produce a productive cough on most days for 3 months during 2 consecutive years. Hypersecretion of mucus usually begins in the large airways and is not associated with airway obstruction. Later hypersecretion progresses to the smaller airways, where airway obstruction begins initially. This is called:
emphysema
A serious disease that destroys lung tissue and causes breathing difficulties.
primary standard
EPA standard set to protect human health
secondary standard
EPA standard set to protect the environment
emissions trading policy
allows polluting companies to buy and sell polluting rights
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