Declaration of Independence
This document allowed people to have natural rights, which favored liberty over order.
British Surrender of Yorktown
Through Washington clever tactic, he was able to corner Cornwallis, which proved liberty over order through America's determination to be independent.
Impact of the Revolutionary War
This revolution allowed American independence through their faith and liberty of their rights over king George III's tyranny of order with his assumed territories.
Articles of Confederation
This document allowed the majority of the political party to be bestowed upon the states rather than the national government. This favors liberty over order.
During the economic crisis within the U.S., Massachusetts decided to raise taxes to resolve state debts. This triggered the ruin of families who made a living off of farming. In addition this leads into the favoring of order than liberty.
United States Constitution
This new constitution favors liberty over order due to evidence that the decisions within the U.S. will be decided through numerous sub division votes. Thus those sub division votes are carried through in each state except for Rhode Island.
New Jersey Plan
While this plan opposed the Virginia Plan due to the lack of power in the new government. This plan advises Congress the power of tax and to control foreign/interstate commerce. In addition towards this acquire decree, order dominates liberty.
This compromise dissolved the entire perception of all men are created equal, which points out that slaves were issued as three-fifths of count in slave state. When time comes for the house of representative to take count. Thus liberty is once again is baffled by Order.
Battle over Ratification
The battle over a constitution on to be a law is strongly argued by federalists who prefer a greater national government while the anti-federalist feared it will disable our individual rights and state government. From the federalist's perspective, order is worth more than liberty.
Bill of Rights
This document entitles the people to keep their rights without processing through the same British system, while allowing the U.S. to gain a new constitution. This favored liberty other than order.
Hamilton's Economic Program
His program overlooked the people's, while issuing the majority of the economic power towards the national government. This emphasized order over liberty.
Citizens within the U.S. rebel against Hamilton's unfair conditions by refusing to pay tax upon whiskey; which was the main income toward the frontier economy. This provided another key event for liberty over order.
This treaty is basically a negotiation with the British to leave the forts alone in the previous treaty of Paris. Thus he failed to attain the British from stopping American Ships from searching for British goods.
This affair occurred when the French were outraged for Jay's treaty, which resulted in capturing of American ships. To bribe the U.S. from seeing their minister. As a result America refused and this proves their liberty over order by not meeting other nation's demands.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Federalists are proposing for more dominance in power toward their government. Sadly Jefferson and Madison disable their attempt due to unconstitutional acts. This proves order over liberty.
Marbury v. Madison
Jefferson proved order over liberty by allowing only candidates for the judicial departments who are non federalists after Adam's last request which consists of one Federalist in judicial.
With the purchasing of Louisiana from France towards America. The national debt and size of the U.S., forced order over liberty.
Embargo Act of 1807
The U.S. was harassed as jealousy from Britain and France. Therefore U.S. ships were captured leaving Jefferson in fear. Thus by declaring this act, the U.S. no longer associated with foreign trade. This ruined American's who profit from trade.
The War of 1812
Due to Madison's misconception of the British aiding the Native Americans, he started an uncalled war with the Britain. Leaving the U.S. losing their national treasure, capital, and deadlocked by the British/ Eventually we sign a treaty which proves American liberty was stronger than order due to America's persistent attitude.
Panic of 1819
During this depressing event, London banks demanded American banks to repay them. Thus Americans were targeted by banks allowing this ruin. These points out order over liberty.
Even though Missouri was successfully declared as a state, the laws of allowing/remaining a slaves state.
First Continental Congress
Before the American nation was created, their congress required that the colonist arm while boycotting English goods.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The British seized and destroyed the supplies in Concord; afterward they were ambushed by colonists, which marked the beginning of the revolution for independence.
After the revolution, American's had a passion for defending the rights of being a part of it.
This relates by stating that the colonists don't want another tyrant to run their nation, instead have a government representation chosen by the people.
Separation of Powers
The splitting powers of the national government, this allows balance among the nations control by three branches instead of a dominant one.
This relates towards the early years of a nation by establishing a term of office for a president.
Basically this focuses on how the government shouldn't regulate every step an individual takes, when pondering about their natural rights. Only if necessary if their actions are unconstitutional towards society.
This occurs in the early years of a nation by forbidding all foreign trade in order to avoid confrontations from other nations.
What did British Colonial Policies change after 1763?
The British had a financial crisis after the war, which allowed them to blame it on the colonists by taxing them through the sugar act of 1764, and quartering act of 1765.
What reasons for independence are given in the Declaration of Independence?
The reason of independence were a government run by the people in order to protect their natural rights; but if the government doesn't meet their requirements the people have the right to abolish it and created a new one.
Why was foreign aid important to the Patriotic cause during the Revolution?
They gained more supplies, loans of money, troops, and navy from France.
What were three weaknesses if the Articles of Confederation?
The three weaknesses that could lead into a weak national government could be caused by formation of a republic which failed in many countries, heavy taxing, and a huge debt.
Describe one compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention?
The great compromise was created, which allowed the legislative branch to have two houses. Those two houses consist of the House of Representatives and a Senate. Each state of the Senate will have the same amount of delegates, and the House of Representatives will have seats depending on the state population amount.
Explain the system checks and balances?
This system allowed each branch the authority to check and stop the other branches when taking action on decisions that may be unconstitutional.
What was the importance of Hamilton's debt plan?
The importance s are establishing the first bank of the U.S. after the solution towards the debt through tariffs or imported goods and whiskey.
Why did Jefferson win the election of 1800?
He favored the people's liberty than allow the government to dominate their rights.
What was the importance of (a) Marbury v. Madison and (b) the Louisiana Purchase?
The significance of Marbury v. Madison proved that the system checks and balances within the nation was successful due to the Judicial review catching that unconstitutional attempt by Marbury to take office. Another, significance was the Louisiana purchase allowed the U.S. to expand while maintaining their exploration for westward expansion.
What were the causes of the war of 1812?
The causes of the war of 1812 were Britain's influence upon the Native Americans to resist American expansion towards the west. Along with President Madison's uncalled for attack upon Canada, whereas he obvious wasn't thinking about the army comparison between America and Britain.
Spice (S) for chapter 2.
The American society was based on Jefferson's moral that all men are created equal. The statement is contradicting due to the fact that women weren't involved in this fight for independence whatsoever. Years after the nation was declared independent, the government issued the 3/5 compromise which consist that all the slave states count only 3/5 of their slaves who aren't even eligible to vote nor represent their opinions within this nation in the House of Representatives. By doing so in order to balance the slave states from the non slave states when representation is called forth. Basically this proves that all men aren't equal if their not a slave.
Spice (P) for chapter 2
Politics within this American nation have experienced many alternations through out the years which considering society along with government. Basically individuals living in the U.S. are devoted to America and through that devotion; they have the right to deny the government if they it failed to satisfy their need within the state. Any action the government proceeds must have consent from the people, which is why a government purpose was to protect individual's natural rights. Shay's Rebellion for example attempted to rebel within America, due to the heavy tax rates that impacted the farmer majority in Massachusetts. During the development of early government, the Articles of Confederation were created to limit national government control. Others have argue about the flaws within this issue. So forth, Madison and followers created the Great Compromise and 3/5 compromise. In order to ensure security/balance. Later on the bill of rights was issued; this ensured our rights weren't denied when new developments in the government advance. Furthermore, a federal system of government called checks and balances was also created. This allowed any of the branches to check for any unconstitutional acts, therefore they are allowed to stop one another. In conclusion this system has permit our nation to survive to this very day by letting the Executive, Judicial, and Legislative branches to catch each other's mistakes before impacting the nation.
Spice (I) for Chapter 2
Colonist's impact upon American soil, allowed them to colonize this nation, while along the lines of ensuring their independence from Britain. After migrating towards America, they've spread their agriculture of trade and technology. Later on this will advance much further into the industrial revolution. They've been successfully been able to create connections for foreign trade with the aid of tobacco fields and selling of whiskey. Basically as far as technology's development within that time period, their strife for independence was guaranteed in a nonviolent manner besides Britain's ambush upon Concord. This American nation started to become colonize from the East; therefore as the time period advances, we'll colonize every aspect towards present day North America.
Spice (C) for Chapter 2
Even though the British are of Christian religion, the colonists weren't widely influence to spread it through out America when they first colonized it. After colonization, their main belief with the help of John Locke, Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, and John Adams was life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. While uniting as one nation instead of separate colonies according to the Declaration of Independence. The only advance technology they have was supplies such as guns, artillery, and ships. This culture achieved a tradition of nationalism which eventually spread through out other nations. By the 21st century, nearly all nations wanted or already achieve nationalism due to the benefits of natural rights.
Spice (E) for Chapter 2
American agriculture and trade were booming until 1819, whereas the Panic of 1819 occurred, which allowed France to demand their repaying debt from the U.S. for the loans given during the revolution. Thus the debt fell onto American's who are forced to pay. The original proposal to settle U.S. debt according to Hamilton was to tax foreign trade imports and whiskey. That method was successful during his time within office, after Marbury took over. The war of 1812 was inevitable due to his lack of militarism when going against Britain's army. Thus the war of 1812 foiled America and left it with more debt to pay after the unnecessary war. Lastly the only solution towards this solution was basically expanded westward.
Westward Expansion (North)
The American population increased dramatically, thus allowing numerous wide spread migration toward the west. In addition technology further advanced; by establishing the industrial revolution.
Market Revolution (North)
North's economy during this period was based upon farming, and Northeast industries. Thus industrialization occurred due to drastic increase in population.
Reform Movements (North)
The North provided underground railroads as free and secure passages. Thus allowing African Americans to fled from the South towards them for the sake of freedom.
The coming of the Civil War (North)
The North fought for freedom of slaves through the Kansas-Nebraska Act. While being civilized since their side was more industrial unlike the South.
Westward Expansion (South)
Slavery was depleting from South due to new conditions allowing freed Africans to live within the Northwestern territories. Furthermore Slavery massively increased due to numerous inventions that required slaves during the industrial revolution.
Market Revolution (South)
As the economy constantly becomes successful, more slaves are required to expand their industries through farming of cotton, tobacco, and sugar.
Reform Movements (South)
African American had the choice of being freed in migrating back to Africa according abolitionist. Unless them, southerners created excuses that African Americans will cause revolts.
Conflicts over Slavery (South)
While the South disagreed due to numerous attempts of runaway slaves toward the North through secret passages.
The coming of the Civil War (South)
The South on the other hand, was less industrialized, and urban. Since they relied heavily upon slaves to do their bidding. In return they fought as well to ease the tension of additional freed states. This forced the nation to split into two, providing the confederate states of America, and North America.
This allowed American's to adopt common sense by relying on themselves, being conservative, ensuring peace, and caring of others within their community.
This allowed massive amounts of exact duplications of the same parts to become created of any product. Thus allowing successful and faster qualities of manufacturing for profits in returned
This religious influenced spread further within the U.S. than any other nations. Thus allowing more faith in God to occur through baptisms, Methodists, Unitarians, and Mormons.
An influential movement that allowed American economic growth to expand through buying, borrowing, circulating money, and making profits.
Free Enterprise System
This economical system motivates individuals and companies to furthermore create new industries, jobs, and wealth. This allows American growth through maintaining and raising their economy. Thus capitalism was established.
This doctrine relates towards America's growth by visualizing the growth of a significant nation with no involvements of European affairs, no further colonization, recognize colonies/states in the Western hemisphere. In addition viewing threats when European invasion occurs towards the Western Hemisphere.
Trail of Tears
This allowed a wide range of farming expansion due to the rich source of cotton where the Native Americans were settling. Thus President Jackson was sending the Cherokees on a suicidal journey toward parts of the Louisiana purchase according to the Indian Removal Act.
This relates toward American Growth by establishing abstinence from alcohol, thus resulting in a harmless controlled individual towards their families.
The theory of establishing perfectionist harmony within communities thus relating to American growth by being a peaceful and unflawed nation.
Senecca Falls Convention
This convention within American was significant towards growth by allowing equal rights amongst women as well.
This allowed American growth by establishing women's right to vote and the beginning of a women's rights organization.
A fate that eventually lead to American's growth by conquering the entire North American continent.
This act caused tension among the North/South states by either allowing more power towards one of them. Thus relating towards American growth by created compromises that will soon unite the nation.
Confederate States of America
A seceded new nation from America which established permitted slavery. This relates towards American growth by fighting for freedom within the U.S. once again.
(a) How did the Industrial Revolution come to the United States? (b) How did it affect America's society and economy?
The industrial revolution was brought to America from Britain, and it dramatically advanced everything within America.
What attracted Americans to the Second Great Awakening?
The session of allowing education to impact Americans thus creating a civilized and educated manner which leads towards more success of profits in the nation.
What events led to Texas's independence and statehood?
The Mexican war, along with the treaty of Guadalupe.
How did economic growth in the North and in the South differ in terms of (a) major products and (b) the use of labor?
North was more industrialized due to self reliance, while the south depended heavily on slaves for farming.
Give examples of nationalism in the early 1800s.
McCulloch v. Maryland, the supreme court was denied the authority to charter the bank, along with Dartmouth College v. Woodward the states within this case couldn't interfere with contracts.
Explain President Jackson's response to the tariff crisis?
He continued to allow the tariffs to rise, even though the economy has sunk towards the panic of 1837 and 1839.
Spice (S) for Chapter 3
The development of early America soon gave rise when the Industrial revolution began. This movement allowed technology, innovation, and economic structures to advance quickly. Families have decided to put education first by allowing Americans to be acknowledged in order to provide success within the nation. Even though America was becoming advanced, women and slave rights were still not acknowledge until in late 1800s.
Spice (P) for Chapter 3
Structures of politics within the nation soon led towards the Whigs. Soon this lead to nationalism that gave rise to cases enforcing laws upon the Supreme Court to decide. While expansion of America was wide spread, this lead to more revolts for more rights within states.
Spice (I) for Chapter3
After the abolitionist's movement toward freed slaves, a major increase of immigration from Ireland and other nations occurred. While settlement spread westward allowing technology to advance leading to a high economy.
Spice (C) for Chapter 3
The impact of returning towards religious belief soon occurred through numerous sources such as the Mormons, Utopians, baptisms, Methodist towards faith in God. While technology became fascination from the cotton gin towards railroads.
Spice (E) for Chapter 3
The economy of America was booming through the beginning of the industrial revolution whereas profits were being successful. Though the South still depended upon slaves, the North was civilized upon relying on themselves.
Who are the first 10 presidents?
2. John Adams
3. Thomas Jefferson
4. James Madison
5. James Monroe
6. John Quincy Adams
7. Andrew Jackson
8. Martin Van Buren
9. William Henry Harrison
10. John Tyler
The Spoils System
Andrew Jackson was not the first President to reward his friends and supporters with government jobs. However, it was during his presidency that this patronage, known as the spoils system, became official.
Jackson believed in a limited role for the federal government, rejecting politicians and laws that he felt would interfere with people's liberty.
Chief Justice John Marshall
The Supreme Court, under him made several important decisions regarding the role of the federal government in the economy.
These decisions included support for a national
A philosophy that influenced the reform movement. Transcendentalism taught that spiritual discovery and insight would lead a person to truths more profound than could be reached through reason.
Emerson and Thoreau
Two New England transcendentalist writers, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, helped launch an "American renaissance" in literature. Both of these writers supported several reform causes and encouraged others to do the same.
The Second Great Awakening helped inspire the reform movements of the 1830s and 1840s. Leaders such as Charles Grandison Finney and Lyman Beecher emphasized that good individuals can make a difference in society.
According to the 1819, Spain gave up its claims to Florida, as well as its claims in the Pacific Northwest. This treaty also fixed the boundary between the Louisiana Purchase and Spanish territory in the West.
The Texas War for Independence
In 1822, Stephen F. Austin started an American colony in east Texas, then owned by Mexico.
As Austin's colony grew, its settlers demanded more political control.
In 1835, a war of independence broke out between Texas and Mexican dictator Antonio López de Santa Anna.
In 1835, the Alamo played a critical role in the Texas Revolution as Texian and Tejano (Mexican descendents) volunteers claimed their independence from Mexico by occupying the Alamo and its village.
Although the Alamo was not designed for military purposes, the Texian militia and regulars fortified the post and mounted 18 cannon, including an 18-pounder.
Thus, it was decided by Mexican generals to attack the Alamo garrison in February of 1836.
It would be a 13-day long affair that climaxed on March 6 with the capture of the mission and the death of nearly all of the Texian defender.
The Texas War for Independence
Two weeks later, Santa Anna order the killing of 300 Texan prisoners at Goliad.
"Remember the Alamo"
In 1836, the rebels, led by Sam Houston, defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto
Treaty signed, an independent Republic of Texas.
Sam Houston was elected their first president.
The Oregon Country
Thousands of settlers sought land and trading opportunities in the Oregon Country, an area shared with Great Britain which stretched from northern California to the southern border of Alaska.
Organized wagon trains, originating from Independence, Missouri, made the journey to the Oregon Country.
In the Treaty of 1846, the United States and Britain divided the Oregon Territory along the 49th parallel.
Transportation and Communication Improvements in the Early 1800s
Steam Power — Inventor Robert Fulton expanded on James Watt's idea of steam power to create a steamboat that could travel against the current. Steamboats made it possible for farmers and planters to ship their goods around the world.
Canals — Since waterways were the cheapest way to transport goods, Americans began building artificial waterways, or canals. The Erie Canal had the greatest impact, speeding development of the Great Lakes region.
Transportation and Communication
Roads — Although some roads were poorly built, others, like the Cumberland Road, were built to last. Private companies constructed highways and made a profit by collecting tolls.
Railroads — The invention of the steam locomotive soon led to the construction of thousands of miles of tracks around the country, beginning in 1828 with the construction of the Baltimore and Ohio (B & 0) line.
Communication — A greatly expanded federal postal service, combined with an increase in the publication of newspapers, magazines, and books, helped keep Americans informed and united.
religious subgroups, expanded, or new groups were founded. These included the Baptists, the Methodists, and the Unitarians.
Hamilton preferred a loose construction, or interpretation, of the Constitution
Believing the government could do anything that the Constitution did not say it could not do.
The government could use implied powers to do anything as long it was not expressly prohibited by the Constitution
strict construction of the Constitution
Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton's plans and preferred a strict construction of the Constitution
Believing that the government should not do anything—such as start a national bank—that the Constitution did not specifically say it could do.
Jefferson resigned at the end of 1793.
Instead of remaining a Neutral country, Washington negotiated a treaty with British.
The British would leave the Forts that they still occupied and agreed to expand Trade.
Did not work to stop British from boarding American Ships
Many felt we were selling out to the much hated British.
Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans were the first political parties in the United States.
Washington was opposed to any political parties.
In the midst of criticism from opposition, Washington choose not to run again for office.
John Adams (Federalists) beat Jefferson to become the Second President.
Based on electoral votes and Constitution, Jefferson became Vice-President
The Presidency of John Adams - 1796
The XYZ Affair
Angry over Jay's Treaty, which expanded trade between Britain and the United States, the French began seizing American ships in French harbors.
In response, Adams sent diplomats to France.
French agents, identified only as X, Y, and Z, demanded a bribe before the Americans could see the French foreign minister.
The Americans refused to pay and returned home.
By 1798, France and the United States were firing on and seizing each other's ships in an undeclared war.
The Presidency of John Adams - 1796
The Alien and Sedition Acts
Taking advantage of the crisis, Federalists pushed the Alien and Sedition Acts through Congress.
The Sedition Act of 1798 made it unlawful to criticize government officials unless all charges could be proven.
The Federalists used this act to silence Republican opposition.
To defy federal power, Virginia and Kentucky passed resolutions that made it possible for them to nullify any federal law they determined to be unconstitutional.
The Law would be null and Void within the State.
The Election of 1800
Growing tensions between Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans made the 1800 presidential campaign particularly divisive.
Jeffersonians accused Adams of being a monarchist. Federalists called Jefferson a godless man who would lead the nation into chaos.
A decisive President, John Adams had angered many of his supporters while he was in office.
Unable to quiet his critics, Adams failed to win reelection.
Thomas Jefferson won the 1800 election, a clear leader of those who preferred local government to national government.
Jefferson Takes Office
During his first term, Jefferson won approval by reducing taxes and cutting the size of the federal bureaucracy and the size of the army.
Goal was to reduce the power and influence the national government had over individual lives.
Kept the Bank of the United States
He easily won reelection in 1804 but had a more difficult second term.
Jefferson Takes Office
Marbury v. Madison
President Adams creates the Judiciary Act of 1801 which increased the number of federal judges
Right before he left office, he quickly appoints new judges from his own party
Jefferson tries to deny Marbury his new appointment
Marbury takes it to court and demands the court to enforce the Act.
Jefferson Takes Office
The Supreme Court declared part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 to be unconstitutional.
It was against the Constitution for the Supreme Court to give this order to the Executive Branch.
In doing so, the Court established the power of judicial review — the power of federal courts to review state laws and state court decisions to determine if they are in keeping with the federal Constitution.
Treaty of Ghent
Unpopular with the people of both Great Britain and the United States, the war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814.
French and Indian War
In 1754, competition for control over territory in North America led to the outbreak of the French and Indian War
British and their American colonists fought against the French and their Indian allies.
Benjamin Franklin presented his Albany Plan of Union to unite the colonies in the war effort.
The colonies rejected his plan, but it later served as a model for the government of the United States.
At first the war went poorly for the British, but soon the British gained advantage
The French retreated in New France (Canada)
The Iroquis Indians, who ended up playing both sides, supported the British.
Britain went on to win the war after its capture of Quebec, the turning point of the war.
In 1763, Great Britain, France, and France's ally Spain signed the Treaty of Paris, ending the French and Indian War.
Despite the victory, the war seriously strained relations between Britain and the American colonists.
The Proclamation of 1763
prohibited colonists from settling areas west of the Appalachian Mountains.
The Quartering Act of 1765
which required the colonies to provided housing and supplies for British troops.
The Declaratory Act
passed by parliament which gave them the authority to pass laws that applied to all colonists "in all cases whatsoever"
"no taxation without representation"
Colonists should have the same rights as people of Britain
The Boston Tea Party
made George III really angry, so he ordered the Navy to close Boston Harbor and British troops occupied the city.
Concord Hymn" by Ralph Waldo Emerson
"Here once the embattled farmers stood, And fired the shot heard round the world."
In 1776, this pamphlet written by Thomas Paine
First appeared in Philadelphia and sold some 25 editions within a year.
Common Sense convinced many colonists to support a break from Great Britain.
During this time, the Second Continental Congress was meeting in Philadelphia.
Patrick Henry, John Adams and Ben Franklin all use Enlightenment ideas to justify independence.
The Colonists wanted the same political rights as people in Britain, but the king refused.
Therefore, the Colonists were justified in Rebelling against a tyrant who had broken the social contact.