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Lecture Exam 3 Part 1
Rebhorn - Lecture notes on Skeletal System
Terms in this set (164)
What does the Skeleton system include?
bones, joints, cartilage, ligaments
Functions of the skeletal system
-support body weight
-protection of internal organs
-production of blood cells
-storage of nutrients such as calcium and fat
What are Three types of cartilage?
Hyaline, Elastic & Fibro
-Most abundant cartilage
-Provides support through Flexibility
-Articular cartilages & costal cartilage, larynx, trachea, and nose
-Many of our bones began as hyaline cartilage
-Contains many elastic fibers
-Able to tolerate repeated bending
-Ear & Epiglottis
-Resists compression & absorbs shock
-Intervertebral discs & pubic symphysis
Growth of Cartilage; growth & repair
Although cartilage stops growing by the late teens, during the early stages of life, cartilage must grow to meet the needs of the developing body. It does so in two different ways; interstitial growth and appositional growth
Where does Interstitial growth happen?
from the inside of the tissue
Where does Appositonal growth happen?
on the outer surface of the tissue
Cartilage: Appositional Growth
chondroblasts in the surrounding perichondrium produce new cartilage matrix to allow the cartilage to grow along the outer edges
Cartilage: Interstitial Growth
chondrocytes within the cartilage divide and produce new matrix to make new cartilage within existing cartilage
Cartilage: Avascular or Vascular?
-Is avascular which limits the body's ability to bring the necessary materials to repair damage.
-It is only the chondrogenic cells along the inner perichondrium that continue to have the ability to divide and assist with repair.
-non-innervated tissue composed of cells (chondrocytes) that lie in chambers (lacuna) in a gel-like flexible matrix
Cartilage throughout life
As we age it is not uncommon for the flexible and resilient cartilage to become more rigid as minerals are deposited in the matrix. Additionally, as injuries occur the cartilage has a minimal ability to repair itself.
Tissues in bone
-they are organs because they contain several types of tissues
-Primarily bone (CT)
-Contain Nerves (NT) and blood (CT)
-Contains Cartilage CT at joints
-Contains Connective Tissue Proper in outermost periosteum
-Contains Epithelial tissue (ET) lining blood vessels
Organization of Bones
There are 206 separate bones in the human body which is a lot to keep organized
-There are several different ways that the bones could be grouped and organized:
1. Shape of the bone
2. Process of bone formation
3. Skeletal division
Bone shapes can be categorized as
long, short, flat or irregular
can be either Endochondral or Intramembranous
Axial or Appendicular
Examples of Long Bones
Examples of Short Bones
carpals, Tarsals, Patella
Examples of Flat bones
Parietal bone, Scapula, & Sternum
Examples of Irregular bones
vertebrae and hip bones
What is the structure of the typical long bone
shaft (diaphysis), bone ends (epiphyses), and membranes
What is the diaphysis?
tubular shaft forming the axis of long bones. It is composed of compact bone, has a central medullary cavity which contains bone marrow (primarily yellow bone marrow in adults)
forms the long axis of the body, providing the framework to support and protect the brain, spinal cord, and internal organs. It attaches to muscles of the head and neck. Comprised of skull, vertebral column, and bony thorax
skull bones: ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal (2), sphenoid, and temporal (2)
Sutures of the skull
coronal, sagittal, lambdoid, squamous
bones of the face: lacrimal -2, mandibular, maxillary-2, nasal, vomer, zygomatic, Palatine-2, Inferior nasal conchae-2
lies inferior to the mandible, only bone in the body muscles attached to this bone help move the tongue and assist with swallowing
cavities within some of the bones of the skull which connect to the nasal cavity and function as an extension of it serve to lighten the skull and warm, cleanse and filter inhaled air
fibrous membranes between the skull that allow the skull to be compressed during childbirth and for room as the brain continues to develop
l The largest fontanel that is located at the midline among the two parietal bones and the frontal bone and is roughly diamond-shaped; typically the last to close at around 18 months of age
located between parietal and occipital bones
soft spot between frontal, parietal, temporal bones- Qty 2
where temporal, occipital and parietal bones meet laterally
contains 26 separate irregular bones which protect the spinal cord and transmit the trunk weight to the lower limbs and serves as an attachment site for muscles, ribs and supporting ligaments
the first 7 vertebrae, comprising the neck
the 12 vertebrae in the middle of the back
L1-L5 lower back
consists of 5 fused vertebrae called the sacrum (S1-S5)
considered 1 bone that is fused from 3-5 vertebrae
Anatomy of Vertebrae: Body
separated from adjacent vertebrae by intervertebral discs; these are the weight bearing regions of the vertebrae
Anatomy of Vertebrae: Spinous Process
the posterior bony projection/ these are attachment sites for muscles and ligaments
Anatomy of Vertebrae: Transverse Processes
two lateral bony projections; these are attachment sites for muscles and ligaments
Anatomy of Vertebrae: Vertebral Foramen
The opening in the center of the vertebrae through which the spinal cord travels
Anatomy of Vertebrae: Superior/Inferior Articular processes
2 superior and 2 inferior bony projections; allows vertebrae to articulate w/ vertebrae superior and inferior to them. Smooth articular points are facets; are on processes
Anatomy of Vertebrae: Intervertebral Foramen
openings through which the spine nerves enter/exit the spinal cord; spaces between the vertebrae
has 2 transverse foramen through which blood vessels pass, most have a visible bifurcated spinous process forked like a snakes tongue
has a small spinous process and no body. Articulates with the base of the the skull, holds the head
second cervical vertebrae. Allows the head to shake "no"
help to absorb compressive shock
Bony Thorax: Sternum
consists of Manubrium, body and xiphoid process
Bony Thorax: Ribs
True ribs (1-7) - attaches to the sternum via a section of costal cartilage; hyaline cartilage
False ribs (8-12) - attach to a single piece of cartilage which then connects them to the sternum
Floating ribs (11-12) - these have no anterior attachement
Rib Anatomy consists of
Head - articulates w/ body of thoracic vertebrae
Tubercle - articulates w/ the costal facets on the transverse process
Costal Groove - found on the interior of the rib and is located at its inferior margin. Here is where blood vessels & nerves travel
forms the bones of appendages. These bones allow you to manipulate objects and move from place to place. It is comprised of the pectoral and pelvic girdles as well as the bones of the legs, arms, feet, hands, wrists, and ankles
Arm or Brachium
region intermediate to the shoulder and elbow; Humerus
Forearm or Antebrachium
region between the elbow and wrist; Radius & Ulna
consists of 8 carpal bones
Hand with Digits
5 metacarpals that form the palm of the hand and 14 phalanges in each hand
consist of the clavicle and scapula with only the clavicle making contact with the axial skeleton. Girdle attaches upper limbs to trunk and provides attachment for muscles that move the upper limbs. Girdle is highly mobile because only the clavicle attaches and because the socket of the ball and socket shoulder joints is shallow so bone does not restrict movement.
Ankle consists of
7 short bones
bone that articulates w/ distal tibia to primarily form the ankle joint
heel bone; the largest tarsal bone
Foot with digits
5 metatarsals and 14 phalanges in each foot
consists of the paired hip bones with strong ligament attachments to the axial skeleton. It attaches lower limbs to the body, provides site of attachment for muscles that move the lower limbs & must accept the entire weight of the upper body. Is NOT as mobile as pectoral because the socket is NOT shallow in the hip ball and socket joint & because the pelvic girdle is held onto the axial skeleton by some of the strongest ligaments in the body
Coxal bone (hip bone)
ilium, ischium, pubis
adapted for childbearing so true pelvis is broad and rounded with large capacity. Coccyx is movable and oriented and straighter. It has a wider pelvis inlet and outlet
adapted for support of heavier build and stronger musculature bones, pelvic inlet and outlet narrow, coccyx curves ventrally
hard bony tissue composed of tightly grouped osteons
central cavity of the bone filled with mostly yellow bone marrow (in adults)
expanded ends of bones that articulate with other bones. these are composed of an inner sore of spongy bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone. The compact bone is then often covered by articular cartilage.
hard projections of bony tissue called trabeculae are separated by spaces. These spaces are filled with red and yellow bone marrow.
are where the epiphysis and diaphysis meet that contains the epiphyseal plate
has an inner cellular layer (cells: osteoblasts, osteoclasts, & bone stem cells) and outer fibrous connective tissue layer that provides a site of attachment for tendons and ligaments & participates in growth and repair. It is highly vascularized and innervated.
(aka sharpey's fibers) thick bundles of collagen that connect the periosteum to underlying bone matrix
incomplete layer that is active during growth, repair and remodeling & composed of osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This lines the medullary cavity, canals of compact bone, and the trabeculae of all spongy bone.
Compact vs Spongy Bone
-compact bone; dense outer layer of long bone composed of osteons
-spongy bone; composed of trabeculae or honeycomb flat pieces that are filled with bone marrow. It is located deep to compact bone in the diaphysis and epiphyses
Large rounded projection; may be roughened
Narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process. ONLY on the femur
Narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a trochanter
Raised area on or above a condyle
sharp, slender, often pointed projection
any bony prominence
flattened arm-like connecting region of a bone
bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
smooth, nearly flat articular surface
Rounded articular projection that usually articulates with a corresponding fossa
Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
Round or oval opening through a bone
Narrow, slit-like opening
indentation at the edge of a structure
the material outside of the bony cells can be categorized into organic components and inorganic components
ECM: Organic Components
carbon containing molecules such as collagen that give bone its tensile strength (bones are able to tolerate the twisting forces0
ECM: Inorganic Components
inorganic materials such as mineral salts (largely calcium phosphates) that give bone its rigid nature & help it tolerate normal compressive forces
stem cells that divide to produce daughter cells that differentiate into osteoblasts. These cells are found primarily within the endosteum and periosteum
cells that derive from osteoprogenitor cells in the endosteum and periosteum, produce new matrix, and promote deposition of calcium into bone
mature bone cells that maintain the protein and mineral content of the matrix by dissolving adjacent matrix and stimulating deposition of new calcium crystals. These are mature osteoblasts that become trapped in spaces in the ECM called lacunae, communicate through cytoplasmic extensions which sit in canals (canaliculi) in the bony matrix that connect osteocytes via gap junctions with other osteocytes and nearby capillaries
derived from white blood cells, these multi-nucleate, large bone cells break down (reabsorb) bony matrix
- secretion of HCl to breakdown inorganic ECM
- release of lysosomal enzymes to breakdown organic ECM
rod of concentric circles (lamellae) that represent the functional unit of compact bone
lamellae are arranged around the central canal which will contain the blood vessels and nerve supply for the osteon. These run parallel to the long axis of the bone
passageways for blood vessels and nerves from one osteon to the next. These run perpendicular to the long axis of the bone.
occur along the external and internal surfaces of the compact bone and encircle the entire diaphysis/medullary cavity
groups of incomplete lamellae within the compact bone. They represent the remains of old osteons that have been remodeled.
lamellae form separate rods or plates that branch frequently creating an open network filled with red bone marrow. The lamellae are covered by endosteum.
Histology of Short, Irregular, & Flat Bones
composed of plates of periosteum that cover compact bone on the outside. Inside is spongy bone called "diploe" covered with endosteum and filled with red bone marrow.
Osteogenesis or ossification
the process of bone tissue formation that leads to the formation of the skeleton in embryos, bone growth until early adulthood, and bone thickness, remodeling, and repair throughout life
active resorption of bone matrix by osteoclasts during the natural formation of healthy bones.
before week 8: skeleton of embryo mad of fibrous CT membranes and hyaline cartilage
After Week 8: embryo undergoes ossification (converting other tissues to bone)
forms flat bones of the skull, mandible, and clavicles.
- Bone grows within connective tissue or mesenchymal layer from osteoblasts after they have differentiated during fetal development. Osteoblasts produce spongy bone (some of which will be later remodeled into compact bone)
Stages of Intramembranous Ossification
1. Ossification begins at the ossification center of the fibrous connective tissue
2. Osteoblasts lay down bone matrix within the mesenchyme. This bone is called Trabeculae. Some osteoblasts become trapped inside the growing bone and become osteocytes.
3. Trabeculae of bone weave together to form woven bone. A periosteum develops around the woven bone.
4. Lamellar bone forms and replaces woven bone. Spongy bone (diploe) is on the inside of flat bones and compact bone is just underneath the periosteum. The spaces in the trabeculae are filled with bone marrow.
how most bones are formed and begins a couple of weeks after intramembranous ossification. bones are firs formed in hyaline cartilage and then remodeled into bone
Steps for Primary Ossification
1. Chondrocytes at the center of the growing cartilage model enlarge and then die as the matrix calcifies
2. Newly derived osteoblasts cover the shaft of the cartilage in a thing layer of bone
3. Blood vessels penetrate the cartilage. New osteoblasts form a primary ossification center.
4. The bone of the shaft thickens and the cartilage near each epiphysis is replaced by shafts of bone.
5. Blood vessels invade the Epiphyses and osteoblasts form secondary centers of ossification
Interstitial bone growth
epiphyseal cartilage is retained between the diaphysis and epiphysis and allows for bone growth as the individual matures
1. Chondroblasts (cartilage cells) at the top divide quickly, pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis and lengthening the entire bone.
2. Older chondrocytes near the diaphysis signal surrounding matrix to calcify and disintegrate
3. New bone matrix (trabeculae) laid down throughout calcified matrix
4. Trabeculae remodeled by osteoclasts to form hollow medullary cavity
Appositional bone growth
osteoblasts deep to the periosteum ad new bony tissue to the bone surface, while osteoclasts deep to the endosteum reabsorb bony tissue from the medullary cavity
continuous breakdown and reforming of bone tissue to shape of bone and internal lamellae and trabecular reflect applied loads and allow for mineral release (allows use or storage of calcium)
-Bones contain 99% of body calcium
-The stresses applied to bones during exercise are essential to maintaining bone strength and bone mass
accomplished by osteoblasts when bone is injured or extra strength is needed. It requires a healthy diet: protein, vitamins, and minerals
osteoclasts break down bone and release the minerals
joints exist where two bones meet. the joints hold the two ones together while allowing movement. they provide resistance to crushing and tearing forces.
Structural classification of joints: Fibrous
fibrous connective tissue (usually composed of dense regular tissue) joints are either immovable or slightly moveable. It includes sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
(SCJ) structural classification of joints: Suture
bones are interlocked and bound together with dense connective tissue. Examples include the bones of the cranium. It is an immoveable joint
(SCJ) Structural Classification of Joints: Syndesmosis
fibrous joints connected by a ligament (these are longer than the fibers in sutures). Examples are Tibiofibular joint which is immovable and Interosseous membrane which is moveable.
SCJ : Gomphosis
bones linked together with short ligaments called periodontal ligaments that holds the tooth in the socket. It allows movement while chewing.
cartilage is the main connective tissue of these joints. It includes synchondrosis & symphyses.
SCJ: Cartilaginous; SynChondrosis
bones joined by rigid hyaline cartilage. These are immovable joints. The following are examples: Epiphyseal plates, Rib & Sternum.
SCJ: Cartilaginous; Symphysis
cartilaginous joint where bones are separated by a disc of fibrocartilage to resist compression & tension. These are slightly moveable joints. Examples are Pubic Symphysis & Intervertebral discs between two vertebrae
fibrous capsule surrounds a synovial cavity filled with synovial fluid. These are always highly moveable joints. Structure - richly vascularized and innervated
hyaline cartilage on the ends of the long bones
potential space that holds a small amount of synovial fluid
clear, viscous fluid similar to interstitial fluid that provides lubrication, nutrient distribution, and shock absorption
two layered capsule
joint capsule (fibrous capsule)
superficial dense irregular connective tissue, which strengthens joint
joint capsule (synovial membrane)
loose connective tissue that lines joint capsule and covers internal joint surfaces. It secretes synovial fluid.
both inside (intracapsular) and outside (extracapsular) of the joint help stabilize and control joint movement. They are composed of dense regular connective tissue
elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon to reduce friction on the tendon
some tendons and ligaments are surrounded by sacs full of synovial fluid to reduce friction between ligament and surrounding tissue. They are separate synovial capsules outside the joint capsules.
found in highly compressed joints (such as the knee) where fibrocartilage pads protect joint
provide cushioning at joint
FCJ (Functional classification of joints): Synarthrosis
slightly moveable joints
freely moveable joint that are synovial joints
SCSJ (structural classification of synovial joints): Gliding
(aka plane) bones have flattened surfaces that slide across on another with very slight movement. Examples are Intercarpal joints & vertebra - vertebra
angular movement along one axis. Examples are knee & Elbow
rotation only. Examples are atlas - axis vertebral articulation, Radius & Ulna articulation
(aka ellipsoidal) allows movement along two planes because joint is capable of oval along and across the length of the oval. Examples are Radius to Carpal joint & metacarpals to phalanges
fit together like a rider and horse. It allows angular motion without rotation. It allows limited circumduction. Example: Thumb
SCSJ: Ball & Socket
round head of one bone rests into a cup shaped depression of another bone allowing all types of movement. Examples are hip & shoulder joints
Range of motion represents the degrees through which a joint can move determined by:
-structure of the articular surfaces
-strength and tautness of ligaments, tendons, and capsule
-Action of the muscles and tendons
two opposing surfaces slide past each other. The movement is slight.
movement along one or two axes
movement anterior-posterior where the angle between the elements decrease
movement anterior-posterior where the angle between the elements increase
movement along medial-lateral plane where movement is away from the midline of the body
movement along medial-lateral plane where movement is towards the midline of the body
movement of an element in a circle
turning around the longitudinal axis of the body
movement of radius medial so palm faces down (or posteriorly)
movement of radius lateral so palm faces up (or anteriorly)
Movement: Inversion and Eversion
twisting motion of the foot that turns it inward for inversion or outward for eversion
Movement: Protraction and Retraction
element moved toward anterior with protraction and posterior with retraction
Movement: Elevation and Depression
superior movement of an element for elevation or inferior movement of an element for depression
to bring the thumb and index fingertips together
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