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Terms in this set (22)
The transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
Any difference between cells, individual organisms, or groups of organisms of any species caused either by genetic differences (genotypic variation) or by the effect of environmental factors on the expression of the genetic potentials (phenotypic variation).
The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
A unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
Reproductive cells that function as the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
All cells of the body except the gametes and their precursors.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
A single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
A genetically identical individual.
The generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism, from conception to production of its own offspring.
A display of the chromosomes in an arranged way (from longest to shortest).
Homologous Chromosomes (Homologs):
Two chromosomes comprising a pair that have the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern.
Chromosomes that determine an individual's sex (X and Y chromosomes).
The chromosomes besides the sex chromosomes.
Any cell with two chromosome sets.
Any cell with one chromosome set.
A union of gametes, culminating in fusion of their nuclei.
The resulting fertilized egg from fertilization. It contains two haploid sets of chromosomes.
A type of cell division that reduces the number of sets of chromosomes from two to one in the gametes, counterbalancing the doubling that occurs in fertilization.
Alternation of Generations:
A second life cycle for plants. The sporophyte generation produces a gametophyte as its offspring, and the gametophyte generation produces the next sporophyte generation.
Meiosis I & Meiosis II:
These two divisions result in four daughter cells (rather than the two daughter cells of mitosis), each with only half as many chromosomes as the parent cell.
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