War of 1812
a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France
Battle of New Orleans
A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to a foolish frontal attack, Andrew Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
an agreement that limited navel power on the Great lakes for both the United States and British Canada
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power. User-contributed
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Panic of 1819
A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank.
Land Act of 1820
authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of $1.25 per acre in cash, it also brought about cheap transportation and cheap money
In 1819, Representative Tallmadge proposed an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission to the Union, which the House passed but the Senate blocked. The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves' offspring born after the state was admitted. In 1821, Congress reached a compromise for Missouri's admission known as the Missouri Compromise.
A euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South. The term aimed to explain away the seeming contradiction of legalized slavery in a country whose Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal". It was one of the key causes of the Civil War.
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819, Maryland tried to destory a branch of the Bank of the United States by taxing its notes. Cheif Justice John Marshall invokes the Hamiltonain doctrine of implied powers, declaring bank constitutional. As a result it strengthened the federal government and limited state governrment.
belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit
Cohens v. Virginia
Cohens selling lottery tickets illegally, Virginia sues. Marshall says Virginia is right, establishes supreme courts right to review cases tried by state courts
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Fletcher v. Peck
Supreme Court case which protected property rights and asserted the right to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution. Arose when a Georgia legislature was swayed by bribary granted 35 million acres in the yazoo river country to private speculators, the next legislature cancelled it, but Supreme Court said it was a contract and the constitution forbids state laws imparing contracts
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
This 1819 Marshall Court decision was one of the earliest and most important U.S. Supreme Court decisions to interpret the contracts clause in Article I, Section 10 of the Constitution. The case arose from a dispute in New Hampshire over the state's attempt to take over Dartmouth College. By construing the Contract Clause as a means of protecting corporate charters from state interventions, Marshall derived a significant constitutional limitation on state authority. As a result, various forms of private economic and social activity would enjoy security from state regulatory policy. Marshall thus encouraged the emergence of the relatively unregulated private economic actor as the major participant in a growing national economy.
established border between US and Canada at the 49th parallel; issue of Oregon border put on hold for 10 years
Florida Purchase Treaty
1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims on Texas to Spain.
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
1824; the Russian tsar fixed the southern boundary of his Alaskan territory at 54°40'
Oliver Hazard Perry
United States commodore who led the fleet that defeated the British on Lake Erie during the War of 1812
Ex. brother of Matthew Calbraith Perry (1785-1819)
Commanded the weaker American fleet and challenged the British. He made the British army retreat, saving at least New York from conquest
Francis Scott Key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812
Ex. the poem was later set to music and entitled 'The Star-Spangled Banner' (1779-1843)
British foreign secretary circa 1823 He wanted America to join Britain in a declaration - wanted the protection of the Latin America states. Keep other European countries out of the western Hemisphere. John Adams thought it was best the U.S. make the declaration. It became the Monroe Doctrine.
Fletcher v. Peck ruling asserts right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Napolean exiled to Elba
British burn Washington DC
Battle of Plattsburgh
Treaty of Ghent signed ending the War of 1812
Second ank of United States founded
Protectionist Tariff of 1816
Argentina declares independence from Spain
Monroe is elected president
Jackson invades Florida
Chile, in rebellion since 1810, declares Independence from Spain
Panic of 1819
Spain cedes Florida to United States in Adams-Onis Treaty
McCulloch v. Maryland
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
France intervenes to suppress liberal government in Spain
Secretary Adams proposes Monroe Doctrine