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terms for fashion industry test 2

The fashion movement is...

evolutionary, not revolutionary; slow changing, subtle changes. Consumers do not like sudden change. Not dependent on sales promotion.

Fashion is created by the...

Industry listens to consumer


does not determine fashion acceptance


often ends in excess.
everyone wears it; available in many different stylistic elements


upper class initiates fashion for status purposes - lower classes imitate - after lower class adopts, upper class discards and adopts a new fashion to assert it's superior position


fashion moves horizontally between groups of similar social levels.
fashion leaders within a group, particular age groups, socioeconomic status (ex. college students, high school students, teachers)


younger or lower class initiate fashion, upper classes accept.
ex. jeans: first from farmers (utilitarian), now staple and all classes wear

Collective Selection

collective taste in fashion formed by consumers similarly influenced by environmental factors, collective idea as a society. ex. (t-shirts, sweatshirts)

Political Views

inhibit or advance fashion.
1. war (WWII, rationing)
2. political relations with other countries
3. legislation
4. political change

Economic Conditions

fashion is a luxury, a discretionary purchase
recession - money spent on investments
good economy - more discretionary income

Technological Developments

manufacturing - ready-to-wear

Psychological Theory

ex. boredom, curiosity, rebel against convention, desire for self-assertion, desire for companionship

Historical Theory

cyclical theory
pendulum of fashion
recycling fashion

Cyclical Theory (Historical Theory)

straight, tubular
bell shape
back fullness


gradual change

Fashion Adoption

the process by which a style is accepted

Long Lived (Length of Cycles)

never becomes completely obsolete

Short-lived (Length of Cycles)

comes and goes in a single season

Cycles within Cycle (Length of Cycles)

design elements may change even though the style itself remains popular

Interrupted/Prolonged Cycle (Length of Cycles)

normal cycle affected for some reason
ex. season, social, economy, political event

Reoccurring Cycles

after a fashion dies, it may resurface

Highest Price

outset (start or beginning)

Moderate/Popular Level Price

as fashion increases in popularity


during decline stage, markdowns begin as consumers will no longer pay full price

Close Out Price

final stages

Fashion Leaders

innovators; small percent of consumers - start fashion by discovering and wearing a style

Early Adapters

adopt relatively early
not before it is established as fashion

Early Majority/Majority

mass acceptance

Late Majority

price moderate, risk low


adopt at markdown price

Successful Merchandising

need clear cut policy on which fashion stages they wish to deal with

Exclusive Shops

boutiques, designer shops, fine specialty stores

Halo Effect

continuing influence on the first impression

Stereotype (Formation)

individuals are grouped according to some visual trait and thereby presumed to possess similar personality or behavioral characteristics


what we think about ourselves (self feedback)
body image, body cathexis (satisfaction), self esteem


distinctive individual qualities
personal attributes, attitude, values, lifestyles


describes how fashion styles filter through consumer groups
ex. age groups, geographic groups, socioeconomic groups


the process by which a style is accepted; taking style from other people


objective characteristics that can be quantified
ex. population and birth rate, geographic concentration of the population, age and aging of the population


subjective characteristics that deal with feel and touch; more than absolute numbers
ex. religious beliefs, fashion interests, etc.

Consumer Research (Sources)

survey, consumer groups, in-store informal interviews

Shopping (Sources)

look at stores and compare

Sales Records (Sources)

look at past sales to predict future trends

Evaluating Fashion Collections (Sources)

look at latest fashions on the runway

Fashion Services (Sources)

trends services
ex. Fashion Snoops, Cotton Inc.

Color Services (Sources)

predict colors people will be wearing in the future
ex. Color Association

Websites (Sources)

ex., latest shows; other websites

Video Services and Television (Sources)

TV shows that start trends

Catalogs (Sources)

similar to shopping stores

Trade Magazines (Sources)

latest fashion business and trade for industry professionals
ex. WWD

Style/Fashion Levels (Fashion Considerations)

type of item

Color (Fashion Considerations)

usually most important

Texture/Fabrication (Fashion Considerations)

surface interest

Price (Practical, Psychological Considerations)

most important for average consumer

Fit (Practical, Psychological Considerations)

crucial step

Appropriateness (Practical, Psychological Considerations)


Workmanship/Quality (Practical, Psychological Considerations)

how well made

Brand/Designer Name (Practical, Psychological Considerations)

manufacturer reputation

Performance/Care (Practical, Psychological Considerations)

ease of care

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