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Terms in this set (31)
What are the functions of nerve cells?
- allow movement
-realization of various sensations
-response to internal and external stimuli
-learning, thinking, and emotions
What are the roles of the Nervous System?
- Controlling the functions of the human body
- Analyzing incoming stimuli
- Integrating internal and external responses
What's the difference between afferent and efferent fibers?
- afferent (peripheral to CNS)
- efferent (CNS to periphery)
communicates between nerves and muscles
Norepinephrine and epinephrine?
Catecholamines released by nerves in the sympathetic branch of the ANS
Involved in the coordination of impulses and responses (reward and pleasure center)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)?
Inhibits nerve activity and is important in preventing overexcitability or stimulation such as seizure activity
Important in arousal and sleep and in preventing depression and promoting motivation
What're the functions of the CNS?
- sensory functions
- motor functions
- intellectual and emotional functions
Sensory (physical) and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage
Does pain have a protective effect?
Yes, but if beyond that, it causes a lot of suffering
the point where pain is first perceived (constant for all of us)
how much pain someone can handle (individual)
What can affect pain tolerance?
cultural/religious beliefs, distraction
- origin is smooth muscle or organs systems innervated by the sympathetic nervous system
- difficult to localize
- may be dull and aching and/or referred (based on where the organ developed during the embryonic period)
Somatic (nociceptive) pain
- skeletal muscle, ligaments, joints
- more localized
- throbbing, aching pain
when their limb has been amputated, but still feel due to nerve endings still being active
- Carefully monitor patient's condition
- Assess vital signs, especially respiratory status
- Assess patient's pain level: character, duration, location, intensity of pain
- Obtain history of medications, alcohol use
Common Nursing Diagnosis
- Knowledge Deficit (condition, therapeutic regimen, side effects)
- Risk for Dependency related to opioid therapy
- Goal is to explain proper use of medication.
- Patient is to be free of pain without dependency.
- Encourage compliance with medication regimen
- Provide additional education
- Patient should have pain control with limited side effects, no dependency.
- Patient verbalizes importance of taking prescribed medications.
What is a subjective measurement used for evaluation?
Asking the patient to rate their pain
Where are opioid receptors located?
- Nerves in the periphery
- Cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract
Which opioid receptors are most important for pain management?
mu and kappa
- responsible for central analgesia
- respiratory depression that occurs with opioids
- increased GI motility
- the ones we actually see drugs affecting most
- pupil constriction
- psychosis (delutions/hallucinations) due to narcotic abuse
Opioid agonist drugs
- stimulate receptors
- we have these in our body
Opioid antagonist drugs
- block receptors
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