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absolute location

a place may be located by mathematically calculating its location using latitude and longitude


the art and science of map-making

circular pattern

arrangement of objects on Earth's surface in a way in which objects circle another object

cultural landscapes

products of interactions between humans and their environments; the modification of the natural landscape by human activities

daylight savings time

time in which clock gets pushed forward one hour in the spring in order to allow people to enjoy more sunlight in the afternoon during the warm spring and summer months, especially for people after they get off work. the clock is then set back to the original standard time in the fall.


issue caused by trying to represent a three-dimensional object (the earth) on a two-dimensional surface (a flat map)

environmental geography

study of the human interactions and influences on the natural world


an imaginary circle that lies exactly half way between the North and South Poles


Greek scholar in 3rd century B.C.E.; accurately calculated earth's circumference (measured sun's angles at summer solstice [June 21] at 2 points on Nile River: Alexandria and Syene; used geometry based on distance btw the 2 cities and angle of sun at each place)

formal regions

(uniform regions) an area that has striking similarities in terms of one or a few physical or cultural features

functional (nodal) regions

areas organized around cores or nodes (has a center that directs the movements and characteristics of non-central parts)


(geographic information system) a computer system that captures, stores, analyzes, and displays data (measures position of object on earth & stores in computer along with countless other specific measurements)


the expansion of economic, political, and cultural activities to the point that they reach and have impact on many areas of the world

Greenwich Mean Time

the standard time at the Prime Meridian


(global positioning system) uses a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers to determine precise absolute locations on earth

grid pattern

pattern in which roads form grids and reflect rectangular systems of land


a Greek historian (550-476 B.C.E.); corrected and enlarged Anaximander's map of earth; described countries and inhabitants of world and mapped where they lived

human geography

study of where and why human activities are located where they are; focuses on people


an 11th century Arab geographer who worked for the king of Sicily to collect geographical information into a remarkably accurate representation of the world

Kant, Immanuel

a German philosopher and geographer who defined geography as the study of inerrelated spatial patterns (the description and explanation of differences and similarities between one region and another)


the overall appearance of an area that is shaped by both human and natural influences


distance north and south of the equator

linear pattern

a type of pattern that runs along straight lines (like rivers, streets, or railroad tracks)

local time

a region that has adopted the same standard time


the position of something on earth's surface


numbering system that calculates distance east and west of the prime meridian

Marsh, George Perkins

a 19th century American geographer (best known for classic work "Man and Nature" published in 1864); focused on impact of human actions on the natural environment; emphasized human destruction of environment

Mercator projection

map projection in which parallels and meridians to cross one another at right angles (direction is true but distorts size) (perfect for navigators)


an arc drawn between the North and South Poles that measures longitude

multi-national corporations

corporations that have centers of operation in many parts of the globe (one reason of economic globalization)


a circle drawn around the globe that measures latitude


the arrangement of objects on earth's surface in relationship to one another

perceptual (vernacular) regions

an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity


region's margins

Peters projection

map projection that focuses on keeping land masses equal in area; shapes are distorted; corrects misconceptions based on Mercator and Robinson projections; first introduced in 1974 by historian and geographer Arno Peters


a specific point on earth with human and physical characteristics that distinguish it from other points

physical geography

studies why and where natural forces occur where they do; focuses on the natural environment itself

physical site characteristic

include climate, topography, soil, water sources, vegetation, and elevation

prime meridian

line of longitude that runs through the observatory at Greenwich, England at 0 degrees


a Greek scholar who lived five hundred years later than Eratosthenes; recalculated circumference of the earth to be smaller by about 9,000 miles (was wrong but was thought of as true for centuries); developed global grid system that was a forerunner to our modern system of latitude and longitude; "Guide to Geography" included many rough maps of landmasses and bodies of water

random pattern

a pattern in which no regular distribution can be seen


the organization of earth's surface into distinct areas that are viewed as different from other areas

Robinson projection

map projection in which meridians curve gently; stretches poles into long lines instead of points (distortions greatest at poles); attempts to balance all distortions by making errors in shape, size, distance, and direction (good for general use; often used in classrooms)

Sauer, Carl

an early 20th century geographer from California; shaped field of Human Geography by arguing that cultural landscapes (products of interactions between humans and their environments) should be main focus of geographic study; his methods of landscape analysis provided a lens for interpreting cultural landscapes as directly and indirectly altered over time as a result of human activity; his study is basic to environmental geography


the relationship between the size of an object or distance between objects on a map and the size of the actual object or distance on earth's surface


the physical and human-transformed characteristics of a place


the location of a place relative to other places

solar time

time based on the position of the sun in the sky as the day progresses (used before time zones)


the physical gap or distance between two objects

space time compression

the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems

spatial organization

the location of places, people, and events, and events, and the connections among places and landscapes

spatial perspective

the way places and things are arranged and organized on the surface of the earth

time zone

a region that has adopted the same standard time (usually referred to as local time)


a name given to a portion of earth's surface

U.S. Census Bureau

used by the government to collect information about the country's inhabitants and compile a census report (info includes age, race, gender, language, education, employment, income, and housing)

"why of where"

explanations for why a spatial pattern occurs

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