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56 terms

AP Human Geo: Unit 1 Vocab

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absolute location
a place may be located by mathematically calculating its location using latitude and longitude
cartography
the art and science of map-making
circular pattern
arrangement of objects on Earth's surface in a way in which objects circle another object
cultural landscapes
products of interactions between humans and their environments; the modification of the natural landscape by human activities
daylight savings time
time in which clock gets pushed forward one hour in the spring in order to allow people to enjoy more sunlight in the afternoon during the warm spring and summer months, especially for people after they get off work. the clock is then set back to the original standard time in the fall.
distortion
issue caused by trying to represent a three-dimensional object (the earth) on a two-dimensional surface (a flat map)
environmental geography
study of the human interactions and influences on the natural world
equator
an imaginary circle that lies exactly half way between the North and South Poles
Eratosthenes
Greek scholar in 3rd century B.C.E.; accurately calculated earth's circumference (measured sun's angles at summer solstice [June 21] at 2 points on Nile River: Alexandria and Syene; used geometry based on distance btw the 2 cities and angle of sun at each place)
formal regions
(uniform regions) an area that has striking similarities in terms of one or a few physical or cultural features
functional (nodal) regions
areas organized around cores or nodes (has a center that directs the movements and characteristics of non-central parts)
GIS
(geographic information system) a computer system that captures, stores, analyzes, and displays data (measures position of object on earth & stores in computer along with countless other specific measurements)
globalization
the expansion of economic, political, and cultural activities to the point that they reach and have impact on many areas of the world
Greenwich Mean Time
the standard time at the Prime Meridian
GPS
(global positioning system) uses a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers to determine precise absolute locations on earth
grid pattern
pattern in which roads form grids and reflect rectangular systems of land
Hecataeus
a Greek historian (550-476 B.C.E.); corrected and enlarged Anaximander's map of earth; described countries and inhabitants of world and mapped where they lived
human geography
study of where and why human activities are located where they are; focuses on people
Idrisi
an 11th century Arab geographer who worked for the king of Sicily to collect geographical information into a remarkably accurate representation of the world
Kant, Immanuel
a German philosopher and geographer who defined geography as the study of inerrelated spatial patterns (the description and explanation of differences and similarities between one region and another)
landscapes
the overall appearance of an area that is shaped by both human and natural influences
latitude
distance north and south of the equator
linear pattern
a type of pattern that runs along straight lines (like rivers, streets, or railroad tracks)
local time
a region that has adopted the same standard time
location
the position of something on earth's surface
longitude
numbering system that calculates distance east and west of the prime meridian
Marsh, George Perkins
a 19th century American geographer (best known for classic work "Man and Nature" published in 1864); focused on impact of human actions on the natural environment; emphasized human destruction of environment
Mercator projection
map projection in which parallels and meridians to cross one another at right angles (direction is true but distorts size) (perfect for navigators)
meridian
an arc drawn between the North and South Poles that measures longitude
multi-national corporations
corporations that have centers of operation in many parts of the globe (one reason of economic globalization)
parallel
a circle drawn around the globe that measures latitude
pattern
the arrangement of objects on earth's surface in relationship to one another
perceptual (vernacular) regions
an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
periphery
region's margins
Peters projection
map projection that focuses on keeping land masses equal in area; shapes are distorted; corrects misconceptions based on Mercator and Robinson projections; first introduced in 1974 by historian and geographer Arno Peters
place
a specific point on earth with human and physical characteristics that distinguish it from other points
physical geography
studies why and where natural forces occur where they do; focuses on the natural environment itself
physical site characteristic
include climate, topography, soil, water sources, vegetation, and elevation
prime meridian
line of longitude that runs through the observatory at Greenwich, England at 0 degrees
Ptolemy
a Greek scholar who lived five hundred years later than Eratosthenes; recalculated circumference of the earth to be smaller by about 9,000 miles (was wrong but was thought of as true for centuries); developed global grid system that was a forerunner to our modern system of latitude and longitude; "Guide to Geography" included many rough maps of landmasses and bodies of water
random pattern
a pattern in which no regular distribution can be seen
regionalization
the organization of earth's surface into distinct areas that are viewed as different from other areas
Robinson projection
map projection in which meridians curve gently; stretches poles into long lines instead of points (distortions greatest at poles); attempts to balance all distortions by making errors in shape, size, distance, and direction (good for general use; often used in classrooms)
Sauer, Carl
an early 20th century geographer from California; shaped field of Human Geography by arguing that cultural landscapes (products of interactions between humans and their environments) should be main focus of geographic study; his methods of landscape analysis provided a lens for interpreting cultural landscapes as directly and indirectly altered over time as a result of human activity; his study is basic to environmental geography
scale
the relationship between the size of an object or distance between objects on a map and the size of the actual object or distance on earth's surface
site
the physical and human-transformed characteristics of a place
situation
the location of a place relative to other places
solar time
time based on the position of the sun in the sky as the day progresses (used before time zones)
space
the physical gap or distance between two objects
space time compression
the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
spatial organization
the location of places, people, and events, and events, and the connections among places and landscapes
spatial perspective
the way places and things are arranged and organized on the surface of the earth
time zone
a region that has adopted the same standard time (usually referred to as local time)
toponym
a name given to a portion of earth's surface
U.S. Census Bureau
used by the government to collect information about the country's inhabitants and compile a census report (info includes age, race, gender, language, education, employment, income, and housing)
"why of where"
explanations for why a spatial pattern occurs