A&P: Connective Tissue
Most abundant; binds, supports, & strengthens tissues; protects, insulates, & compartmentalizes structures; highly vasular (exc. cartilage & tendons); nerve supply (exc. cartilage)
What are the 2 basic elements of c-tissue?
Extracellular matrix & cells
Located between spaced cells of c-tissue; consists of protein fibers & ground substance; secreted by c-tissue
What is extracellular matrix responsible for?
Unique properties of each type of c-tissue
Fluid, semifluid, gelatinous, or calcified; composed of H2O, proteins, & polysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans (GAG)
Example of glycosaminoglycans (GAG)?
Hyaluronic acid - viscous, slippery substance that binds cells, lubricates joints, & maintains shape of eyeballs
What are examples of sub. that produce hyaluronicdase?
White blood cells, sperm, & some bacteria
3 types of fibers of extracell. matrix
Collagen, elastic, & reticular
Strong & flexible protein, strongest when packed in tight, parallel bundles
Protein elastin & can stretch & recoil back into shape
Fine bundles of collagen coated w/ glycoprotein formed into branching networks (forms framework (stroma) into soft organs)
What do immature cell names end in?
What do mature cell names end in?
Examples of immature cells?
Fibroblast, chondroblast, oseoblast
Examples of mature cells?
List of cells present in c-tissue cells
Fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma, mast, adipose, WBC
Most numerous cells & secrete fibers & ground substance of matrix
Engulfs bacteria & cellular debris by phagocytosis
Produce histamine (helps reactions to injury/wounds)
Fat cells that store triglycerides (fats)
Immune system response
Present primarily in the embryo & fetus
Present after birth, 5 types of this
5 types of mature tissues
Loose, dense, cartilage, bone, & liquid
3 types of loose c-tissue
Areolar, adipose, & reticular
Areolar c-tissue (loose)
Consists of collagen, elastic, & reticular fibers & fibrblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, adipocytes, & mast cells; *functions in strength, elasticity, & support
Where is the areolar c-tissue located? (loose)
Located in subcutaneous layer deep to skin, superficial region of dermis, mucus membranes, & around blood vessels, nerves, & body organs
Adipose c-tissue (loose)
Consists of adipocytes where triglycerides are centrally located, & nucleus & cytoplasm are peripherally located; *functions in reduces heat loss, energy reserve, support, & protection
Where is the adipose c-tissue located? (loose)
Located in subcutaneous layer deep to skin, yellow bone marrow, padding around joints & behind eyeballs (eye sockets)
Reticular c-tissue (loose)
Consists of networking of interlacing reticular fibers & cells, *functions: forms stroma, filters & removes blood cells in spleen & microbes in lymph nodes
Where is the reticular c-tissue located? (loose)
Located in the stroma (supportive framework) of liver, spleen, & lymph nodes
Has more fibers & less cells loose c-tissues; 3 types of this
3 types of dense c-tissue
Regular, irregular, elastic
Regular dense tissue
Parallel bundles of collagen fibers w/ fibroblast (tendons & ligaments); *function: provides strong attachment
Elastic dense tissue
Branching elastic fibers & fibroblasts for stretching & recoiling (lungs, bronchial tubes, ligaments); *function is to allow stretching of organs
Dense network of collagen fibers & elastic fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate, strength due to collagen, resilience due to chondroitin sulfate
Chondrocytes (w/ cartilage)
mature cartilage cells in the lacunae (spaces) in extracell. matrix
3 types of cartilages
Hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage
consists of chondrocytes & collagen fibers; located at ends of long bones, anterior ends of ribs, parts of nose, & fetal skeleton
Function of hyaline (cartilage)
Give support & shock absorption
Strongest type of cartilage, consists of chondrocytes scattered in bundles of collagen fibers
Where are fibrocartilage found?
Found in pubis symphysis, intervertebral discs, menisci of knees, & portions of tendons
Highly felxible & resilient, chondrocytes scattered among elastic fibers
Where are elastic cartilage found?
Located on top of the larynx, part of the external ear, & auditory tubes
Functions of elastic cartilage?
Flexible support & maintains shape
Bone c-tissue (type)
AKA ossseous tissue, contains osteocytes that are located w/n lacunae in matrix; 2 classifications
2 classifications of bone c-tissue?
Spongy & compact
Spongy (extra. cell matrix - bone)
Matrix is arranged in lattice-like thin columns
Compact (extra. cell matrix - bone)
Matrix is arranged in concentric rings
Why is bone c-tissue hard? Due to?
Rigid & hard due to calcium & phosphate stores
What are the 2 types of liquid c-tissue?
Blood & lymph
Has a liquid matrix called blood plasma (RBC, WBC, & platelets)
Flows in lymphatic vessels & circulates body fluids, transports lipids, & helps protect against pathogens