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54 terms

A&P: Connective Tissue

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Connective Tissue
Most abundant; binds, supports, & strengthens tissues; protects, insulates, & compartmentalizes structures; highly vasular (exc. cartilage & tendons); nerve supply (exc. cartilage)
What are the 2 basic elements of c-tissue?
Extracellular matrix & cells
Located between spaced cells of c-tissue; consists of protein fibers & ground substance; secreted by c-tissue
Extracellular matrix
What is extracellular matrix responsible for?
Unique properties of each type of c-tissue
Fluid, semifluid, gelatinous, or calcified; composed of H2O, proteins, & polysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans (GAG)
Ground substance
Example of glycosaminoglycans (GAG)?
Hyaluronic acid - viscous, slippery substance that binds cells, lubricates joints, & maintains shape of eyeballs
What are examples of sub. that produce hyaluronicdase?
White blood cells, sperm, & some bacteria
3 types of fibers of extracell. matrix
Collagen, elastic, & reticular
Collagen
Strong & flexible protein, strongest when packed in tight, parallel bundles
Elastic
Protein elastin & can stretch & recoil back into shape
Reticular
Fine bundles of collagen coated w/ glycoprotein formed into branching networks (forms framework (stroma) into soft organs)
What do immature cell names end in?
-blast
What do mature cell names end in?
-cyte
Examples of immature cells?
Fibroblast, chondroblast, oseoblast
Examples of mature cells?
Chondrocyte, osteocyte
List of cells present in c-tissue cells
Fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma, mast, adipose, WBC
Most numerous cells & secrete fibers & ground substance of matrix
Fibroblast
Engulfs bacteria & cellular debris by phagocytosis
Macrophages
Secretes antibodies
Plasma cells
Produce histamine (helps reactions to injury/wounds)
Mast cells
Fat cells that store triglycerides (fats)
Adipocytes
Immune system response
WBCs
Embyronic
Present primarily in the embryo & fetus
Mature
Present after birth, 5 types of this
5 types of mature tissues
Loose, dense, cartilage, bone, & liquid
3 types of loose c-tissue
Areolar, adipose, & reticular
Areolar c-tissue (loose)
Consists of collagen, elastic, & reticular fibers & fibrblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, adipocytes, & mast cells; *functions in strength, elasticity, & support
Where is the areolar c-tissue located? (loose)
Located in subcutaneous layer deep to skin, superficial region of dermis, mucus membranes, & around blood vessels, nerves, & body organs
Adipose c-tissue (loose)
Consists of adipocytes where triglycerides are centrally located, & nucleus & cytoplasm are peripherally located; *functions in reduces heat loss, energy reserve, support, & protection
Where is the adipose c-tissue located? (loose)
Located in subcutaneous layer deep to skin, yellow bone marrow, padding around joints & behind eyeballs (eye sockets)
Reticular c-tissue (loose)
Consists of networking of interlacing reticular fibers & cells, *functions: forms stroma, filters & removes blood cells in spleen & microbes in lymph nodes
Where is the reticular c-tissue located? (loose)
Located in the stroma (supportive framework) of liver, spleen, & lymph nodes
Dense c-tissue
Has more fibers & less cells loose c-tissues; 3 types of this
3 types of dense c-tissue
Regular, irregular, elastic
Regular dense tissue
Parallel bundles of collagen fibers w/ fibroblast (tendons & ligaments); *function: provides strong attachment
Elastic dense tissue
Branching elastic fibers & fibroblasts for stretching & recoiling (lungs, bronchial tubes, ligaments); *function is to allow stretching of organs
Cartilage
Dense network of collagen fibers & elastic fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate, strength due to collagen, resilience due to chondroitin sulfate
Chondrocytes (w/ cartilage)
mature cartilage cells in the lacunae (spaces) in extracell. matrix
3 types of cartilages
Hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage
Hyaline (cartilage)
consists of chondrocytes & collagen fibers; located at ends of long bones, anterior ends of ribs, parts of nose, & fetal skeleton
Function of hyaline (cartilage)
Give support & shock absorption
Fibrocartilage
Strongest type of cartilage, consists of chondrocytes scattered in bundles of collagen fibers
Where are fibrocartilage found?
Found in pubis symphysis, intervertebral discs, menisci of knees, & portions of tendons
Elastic cartilage
Highly felxible & resilient, chondrocytes scattered among elastic fibers
Where are elastic cartilage found?
Located on top of the larynx, part of the external ear, & auditory tubes
Functions of elastic cartilage?
Flexible support & maintains shape
Bone c-tissue (type)
AKA ossseous tissue, contains osteocytes that are located w/n lacunae in matrix; 2 classifications
2 classifications of bone c-tissue?
Spongy & compact
Spongy (extra. cell matrix - bone)
Matrix is arranged in lattice-like thin columns
Compact (extra. cell matrix - bone)
Matrix is arranged in concentric rings
Why is bone c-tissue hard? Due to?
Rigid & hard due to calcium & phosphate stores
What are the 2 types of liquid c-tissue?
Blood & lymph
Has a liquid matrix called blood plasma (RBC, WBC, & platelets)
Blood
Flows in lymphatic vessels & circulates body fluids, transports lipids, & helps protect against pathogens
Lymph