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ad hominem argument

appeals to emotion rather than reason (deceptive)


a reference to a person, place, thing , or work of art that the author expects the reader to know


making a clear concept or idea by showing its similarity to a more familiar concept


an acknowledgement of objections to a proposal

correction of erroneous views

pointing out where another's observations need modification or correction


word choice


meant to teach


a less offensive substitute for an unpleasant word (allowed doublespeak)


an emotionally violent, verbal attack


figurative language

reduce to the absurd

to show the foolishness of an argument by taking the argument to its logical (yet absurd) conclusion

specious reasoning

apparent logic; not truly logical but presented as such (deceptive)


sentence structure (groups of words, where as diction is single word choice)


author's attitude toward his/her topic, the audience or both

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