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31 terms

Geography of Africa (Intermediate) Terms Weeks 1-5

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Desert
a very dry area receiving less than 10 inches of rain per year
Arable
land that can be cultivated
Sahel (sa HEL)
transition area in western and central Africa directly south of the Sahara Desert. It is semi-arid grassland with sparse vegetation.
Savannah
tropical grassland with scattered trees with wet/dry seasons
Escarpment
cliff or steep slope separating two nearly flat land surfaces
Cataract
a large steep waterfall
Salt pan
an accumulation of salt on the floor of a desert basin
Wadi
a channel cut through the desert by water; a dry river bed
Reg
gravel-covered plain
Erg
sand dune
Drought
long period without rainfall
Famine
extreme scarcity of food
Oasis
an area made fertile by a source of fresh water in an otherwise arid region
Nomads
livestock herders who migrate seasonally in search of pasture, food, or water
Ethnic group
a group of people that have similar racial, cultural, and language backgrounds
Subsistence farming
farming in which crops are grown for food (not for sale)
Confluence
the point at which two streams or rivers meet and flow together
Reservoir
artificial lake where water is collected
Animism
belief that plants and animals are inhabited by mostly evil spirits
Infrastructure
the permanent resources serving society's needs, including roads, sewers, schools, hospitals, railways, utilities, communication networks, etc.
Indigenous
native to an area; the original people of a region
Desertification
transformation of habitable land into desert
Refugee
a person who is forced to flee their country because of war, famine, or persecution
Gross domestic product (GDP)
total value of all goods and services produced by a country in a given year
Per capita GDP
average income for each person (calculated by dividing the GDP by the population)
Literacy
the ability to read and write
Erosion
the process by which soil or rock is worn away by the action of wind, water, or ice
Berbers
original non-Arab peoples of northwest Africa
Staple food
main food in the diet of a region
Maghreb
5 countries of North Africa west of Egypt: Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Mauritania
Desalination
process to remove salt and other minerals from water