Research Methods & Design: Chapter 11 Comprehension Quiz

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________ in quasi-experimental designs is more difficult than in true experiments because quasi-experimental designs lack the important features of true experiments such as random assignment to conditions.

Applied settings
Statistical regression
Propensity score matching
Causal inference
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Terms in this set (20)
Why is the cross-sectional method more common than the longitudinal method?

The results are obtained relatively quickly and it is less expensive.

The differences among groups of different ages reflect developmental age changes.

The results observed are based on comparisons among different cohorts of individuals.

The developmental change is observed directly among the same group of people.
A quasi-experimental design attempts to

create natural conditions in the laboratory.

study the effect of an independent variable when the control features of true experimental designs cannot be achieved.

control all extraneous variables after subjects have been randomly assigned.

measure changes in the independent variable.
Which of the following is true of single-case designs?

Complex statistical analyses are not required.

The results are presented as group data with overall means.

Early interest in single-case designs in psychology came from research on classical conditioning.

The procedures for use with a single subject cannot be replicated with other subjects.
From an ethical viewpoint, the ABAB design is preferred over the ABA design because

the ABAB design is less expensive and less time-consuming.

a single reversal, in most cases, tends to be extremely powerful evidence for the effectiveness of the treatment.

it does not seem right to end the design with the withdrawal of a treatment that may be beneficial to the participant.

the ABAB design more powerfully rules out chance fluctuations and coincidental events.
A researcher wants to study the effect of weather on college students' study habits. On a sunny day, the researcher sits in the quad and records the number of minutes of study per student. Identify the crucial element missing in this design.

an independent variable
a control group
a dependent variable
an experimental group
Which of the following is true of a nonequivalent control group design?

The two groups in an experiment are the result of random assignment.

The problem of selection differences is likely to arise in this design.

The design does not include a separate control group.

The same group of people is observed at different points in time as they grow older.
In the context of one-group pretest-posttest design, maturation effects occur when a confounding event occurs at the same time as the experimental manipulation. participants change over time. taking a pretest changes the participant's behavior. the basic characteristics of the measuring instrument change over time.participants change over time.In developmental research, a cohort is a group of people who lived apart, influenced by different demographic trends. someone who shares an individual's living quarters. a group of people born at about the same time, exposed to the same events in a society. someone who has many characteristics similar to those of the individual under study.a group of people born at about the same time, exposed to the same events in a society.Which of the following best describes a cross-sectional study on children's development? Children who are 2, 6, and 8 years old are tested simultaneously. The same children are tested at 1, 3, 5, and 9 years of age. The performance of children who performed well in a test given to them when they were 5 years old is measured continuously until adulthood. Children who are 1, 3, and 5 years of age are tested again when they are 3, 5, and 7, respectively.Children who are 2, 6, and 8 years old are tested simultaneously.In the context of reversal designs, the ABABAB design is sometimes called the nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. ends with the withdrawal of the treatment. allows the effect of the treatment to be tested a third time. is the basic reversal design.allows the effect of the treatment to be tested a third time.When asked to exercise daily to maintain a healthy lifestyle, Joan refuses. However, when she realizes that her current lifestyle will result in adverse health effects, she joins the gym and works out regularly. Joan's decision to exercise is most likely caused by carryover effects. maturation effects. practice effects. fatigue effects.maturation effects.Laila realizes that positive words help her son Jimmy perform better at soccer. Using this technique, she eventually ensures that he performs better in academics and in competitive exams. What type of single-case design does Laila employ? nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design reversal design multiple-baseline design across situations posttest-only designmultiple-baseline design across situationsWhat is the difference between true experimental designs and quasi-experimental designs? True experimental designs use control groups, whereas quasi-experimental designs do not. Quasi-experimental designs use control groups, whereas true experimental designs do not. True experimental designs use random assignment, whereas quasi-experimental designs do not. Quasi-experimental designs use random assignment, whereas true experimental designs do not.True experimental designs use random assignment, whereas quasi-experimental designs do not.The use of existing natural groups of participants often results in many independent variables. regression toward the mean. nonequivalent groups. equal numbers of males and females.nonequivalent groupsThe interrupted time-series design involves comparing treatment and control groups over an extended period of time. making an observation immediately before and immediately after a treatment is instituted. making observations over an extended period of time before and after a treatment is instituted. using time as the dependent variable.making observations over an extended period of time before and after a treatment is institutedSingle-case experiments were developed from a need to measure only a single dependent variable. have a design that examines a measurement at only one point in time. determine whether an experimental manipulation has an effect on a single research participant. overcome selection differences that occur in nonequivalent control group designs.determine whether an experimental manipulation has an effect on a single research participant.