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Terms in this set (53)
An important functional role of the endocrine system is to ____.
Small quantities of hormone can result in profound responses in target tissues. This type of response is referred to as ____.
Select the appropriate order of hormone action.
reception, transduction, response
Your job is to determine if a steroid hormone is having an effect on its target tissue. Which response would indicate activation of the target tissue by the hormone in question?
increased levels of mRNA
Which organ and hormone pair is incorrectly matched?
hypothalamus and melatonin
If adenylyl cyclase were inhibited in animal cells, ____.
binding of epinephrine to beta receptors would have no affect on cyclic AMP levels.
In an experiment examining adrenergic receptors, epinephrine alone was not able to trigger an increase in cAMP, but when beta receptors were fused with animal cells, there were high levels of cAMP. This indicates ____ was occurring.
both activation of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase amplification
The pituitary gland is regulated most directly by the ____.
The ____ gland has a neurosecretory component as well as a component that is not under direct neural control.
The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland stores and secretes ____.
ADH and oxytocin only
One of the main functions of the hypothalamus is to produce ____ hormones, which affect the ____ pituitary.
Which hormone has a role in both feelings of well-being and in social stress responses in both sexes?
Select the correct sequence of events involved in regulating secretion of thyroid hormones.
pituitary releases thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
hypothalamus secretes thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH)
thyroid hormones inhibit long-term TRH secretion
thyroid secretes thyroid hormones
thyroid hormones inhibit TSH secretion
2, 1, 4, 5, 3
The anterior pituitary secretes more ACTH, leading to more glucocorticoids in plasma, which causes the anterior pituitary to then secrete less ACTH. This is an example of ____ regulation.
If melanocyte-stimulating hormone were increased, you would expect ____.
increase in pigmentation in the skin
The regulation of water balance, milk release, and uterine contractions during childbirth are mediated by the ____ gland.
The ____ gene is the only gene successfully targeted for breast cancer prevention.
Which hormone is responsible from the release of calcium and phosphate ions from bone tissues into the blood?
The actions of insulin and glucagon are ____.
You are studying the hormonal control of metamorphosis in amphibians. If the anterior pituitary was prevented from releasing TSH, what would be the effect on tadpoles?
Metamorphosis to adult frogs would not occur.
During stressful situations, epinephrine initiates ____.
dilation of blood vessels to the heart
Overproduction of the mineralocoticoid ______ causes excessive water retention
Biological rhythms and the onset of sleep are regulated by ____ produced by the ____.
melatonin; pineal gland
In humans, an adult suffering from hyperthyroidism ____.
experiences insomnia and weight loss
Calcium levels are primarily under the control of ____.
prolactin and oxytocin
Which hormone involved in reproductive functions is produced outside the gonads?
When rats are given high doses of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), they experience ____.
increased aggression and anxiety
Type 1 diabetes causes ____, while type 2 diabetes results in ____.
insulin deficiency; insulin resistance
Anabolic-androgenic steroids are ____.
synthetic forms of testosterone
When human volunteers were given high doses of AAS, ____
TSH levels increased
Which statement about steroid hormones in invertebrates and vertebrates is most accurate?
The reaction pathways stimulated by steroid hormones in invertebrates and vertebrates are similar.
In order for crustacean molting to occur, ____ secretion must ____.
When molt-inhibiting hormone secretion (MIH) is prevented, ____.
ecdysone levels increase
The reason some individual hormones have multiple effects on different target tissues is that ____.
many different cells in different tissues have specific receptors for the hormone
Overproduction of epinephrine and norepinephrine can cause ____.
increased heart rate
Negative feedback loops to the hypothalamus and the pituitary operate to regulate the levels of ____, the most important regulator of thyroid hormone secretion.
Target tissues often have receptors for multiple hormones. The response of the target tissue may depend on ____.
blood levels of, coordinated activities of several hormones secreted by different glands, and the effects of other signaling molecules, such as prostaglandins
Select the endocrine gland whose secretory function is under direct control of the sympathetic nervous system.
Which hormone(s) is/are responsible for sodium reabsorption in the kidneys and intestine?
How do mammalian and nonmammalian adrenal glands differ?
the mammalian glands consists of two distinct regions while the nonmammalian glands consist of separate glands
The parathyroid gland ____.
produces only a single hormone, the parathyroid hormone
The ovaries are regulated by the____.
The ____ hormones are vital to growth, development, maturation, and metabolism in all vertebrates.
Why do diabetes patients often display tissue degeneration in the extremities?
The body utilizes protein as an energy source, weakening blood vessels , especially those in the extremities.
In insects, the level of ____ controls the formation of a pupa
Melatonin levels in mammals are regulated by a(n) ____.
The synthesis and secretion of ____ is ultimately regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the ____.
When hydrophilic hormones bind to surface receptors, the ____.
receptor is activated
Hydrophobic hormones act by ____.
triggering a genomic response
In many cases, negative feedback loops maintain homeostasis by adjusting hormones that act in ____.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are ____ hormones.
Ovaries produce ____ to prepare the uterus prior to implantation of a fertilized egg
Cortisol is a ____ secreted by the ____.
glucocorticoid; adrenal cortex
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