BIOL 461 Exam 2

T/F: US National parks were created to conserve biodiversity
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T/F: competition can only occur between species that are closely relatedFalseWhat type of parameter do Violle and Jiang argue may be used to provide estimates of niche position and breadth?Violle and Jiang argue that the mean trait values for a species can determine its niche position and intraspecific trait variability can determine its niche breadthList 2 advantages of using plant functional traits as a proxy for performance or fitnessUsing plant functional traits to understand performance is less harmful to the organism because a majority of the biomass does not need to be harvested in order to observe these traits. Also, plant traits are generally easy to measure, allowing a larger number of species to be observedWhat is another word for "trophic"?EnergeticWhat is the difference between a competitive network and a competitive hierarchy?In a competitive network, strong direct competition is buffered by indirect interactions between connected species, whereas a competitive hierarchy is composed of a linear hierarchy in which one species clearly dominates over the othersDescribe the difference between disturbance and stressA disturbance is an abiotic event that creates opportunities for individuals to grow/reproduce by killing or injuring other individuals, whereas stress is when an abiotic event creates opportunities for individuals to grow/reproduce by reducing other individuals' growth, reproduction, or survivalWhat are the names of the three models of succession proposed by Connell and Slayter?The facilitation model, the tolerance model, and the inhibition modelBriefly describe the inhibition modelA disturbance opens an area of habitat, creating opportunities for colonization allowing any species that arrived at the open habitat to establish itself and survive to adulthood. In this model, early colonists of the open habitat modify the environment so that it becomes more suitable for them and less suitable for any other species trying to grow there. The early colonists should be able to grow and thrive in this habitat, suppressing any colonization attempted by subsequent species. The only way in which other species may be established in this environment is if many of the early colonists are killed off/unable to reproduce.