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The individual with the unknown genotype is bred with a homozygous recessive individual. (test cross)
Variation measured on a continuum rather than in discrete units or categories (eg height in human beings).
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
characteristics that have either one phenotype or another eg. tongue rolling, eye colour etc.
law of segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
any agent (physical or environmental) that can induce a genetic mutation or can increase the rate of mutation. (mutagens are, ionising radiation, viruses & microbes, environmental poisons, alcolol and diet.)
The individual with the unknown genotyoe is bred with a homozygous recessive individual. (back cross)
Either changes in structure of a chromosome or the loss of an entire chromosome
Individuals select for desired phenotypes in mates. (prefereble traits will become more common in the gene pool)
Significance of meiosis
ensures that offspring have the correct amount of chromosomes in the somatic cells
Stages of Meiosis
interphase, prophase1, metaphase1, anaphase1, telophase1, prophase2, metaphase2, anaphase2, telophase2,
term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait eg Bb
term used to refer to an organism that has the same alleles for one trait, having two identical alleles for a trait eg BB, bb
selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population forming a new population
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
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