Honors Biology Ch. 4- Organization of the Cell
48 important vocabulary for the parts of cells. Made from "Biology" (8th edition, by Solomon, Berg, and Martin) Chapter 4- Organization of the Cell.
Terms in this set (48)
This says that all living things are made of cells, that cells are the basic unit of structure and function and that cells only come from other cells.
a phospholipid bilayer that surrounds a cell and serves as a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
specialized structures that carry out specific cell functions
Tiny hair-like projections of the cytoplasmic membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.
Area in prokaryotic cells in which DNA is concentrated, though not bounded by a membrane
strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
long projections on a cell's surface whose whip like movement helps move the cell
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with eukaryotic cells (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called eukaryotes.
The entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane.
The fluid contained within the nucleus of a eukaryote in which the chromosomes and nucleoli are found.
the part of the cytoplasm that includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but not membrane-bound organelles
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles; includes the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles.
small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of, and within a cell
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
structures in the nuclear envelope that allow passage of certain materials between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
Areas of nucleus made up of ribosomal RNA and proteins where ribosomes are produced
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
the space inside the ER where proteins are folded, modified and prepared for transport to other locations in the cell or are tagged for export from the cell
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes. It contains collections of enzymes that perform specialized tasks including the synthesis of membrane lipids and the detoxification of drugs.
A network of interconnected membranous sacs in a eukaryotic cell's cytoplasm; covered with ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins.
A net-like structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells, modifies, packages, and transports material out of the cell.
Flattened, membrane-bound compartments that make up the Golgi apparatus. Also found within the endoplasmic reticulum.
Small, spherical organelles that contain the cell's digestive enzymes.
Membranous sacs contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals.
Stores water and nutrients for the cell; very large in plant cells
A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosol from the vacuolar contents, called cell sap.
Vacoules found in protozoa which fuse with lysosomes that digest food.
Sac-like organelles that expand to collect excess water and contract to squeeze the water out of the cell.
Organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
Programmed cell death.
Abnormal cell death.
Responsible for enzymatic cell death in apoptosis.
An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water. It houses Chlorophyll
A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants. It uses light energy to split water molecules during photosynthesis, which is converting solar energy to chemical energy.
A process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis
A group of plant organelles that are used for storage of starches, lipids, or pigments
Small, often colorless, membrane sacs that can divide and can mature into functional plastids.
Type of plastid that stores pigments that are responsible for the bright colors in fruit and flowers.
Unpigmented plastids that store starches or oils in cell stems, tubers, seeds, they are part of the plastid family.
Unpigmented plastids that store starch/grain (amylose) in cell stems, tubers, seeds, they are part of the plastid family.